Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
FORM 10-K
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                          to                         
Commission file number: 001-38358
INSEEGO CORP.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
81-3377646
(State or Other Jurisdiction
of Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
12600 Deerfield Parkway, Suite 100
Alpharetta, Georgia
 
30004
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (858) 812-3400
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
Preferred Stock Purchase Rights
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
o
Accelerated filer
x
Non-accelerated filer
o
Smaller reporting company
x
 
 
Emerging growth company
o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  ¨    No  x
The aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price of the registrant’s common stock on June 29, 2018, as reported by The Nasdaq Global Select Market, was approximately $96.5 million. For the purposes of this calculation, shares owned by officers and directors (and their affiliates) have been excluded. This exclusion is not intended, nor shall it be deemed, to be an admission that such persons are affiliates of the registrant. The registrant does not have any non-voting stock issued or outstanding.
The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of February 28, 2019 was 74,284,287.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K to the extent stated herein.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
PART I
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
 
Item 1B.
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
 
 
Item 6.
 
 
 
Item 7.
 
 
 
Item 7A.
 
 
 
Item 8.
 
 
 
Item 9.
 
 
 
Item 9A.
 
 
 
Item 9B.
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
 
 
 
Item 11.
 
 
 
Item 12.
 
 
 
Item 13.
 
 
 
Item 14.
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
 
Item 16.
Form 10-K Summary
 
 
 
 



Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), in reliance upon the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You should not place undue reliance on these statements. These forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements that reflect the views of our senior management with respect to our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about Inseego Corp. (the “Company” or “Inseego”) and our industry. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. We disclaim any undertaking to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based. Statements that include the words “may,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “preliminary,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “outlook,” “will” and similar words and phrases identify forward-looking statements (although not all forward-looking statements contain these words). Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified; therefore, our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as of the date of this report. We believe that these factors include those related to:
our ability to compete in the market for wireless broadband data access products, wireless modem products, and asset management, monitoring, telematics, vehicle tracking and fleet management products;
our ability to develop and introduce new products and services successfully;
our ability to meet the price and performance standards of the evolving 5G New Radio (“5G NR”) products and technologies;
our ability to expand our customer reach/reduce customer concentration;
our ability to grow the Internet of Things (“IoT”) and mobile portfolio outside of North America;
our ability to grow our Ctrack/asset tracking solutions within North America;
our dependence on a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenues;
our ability to realize the benefits of recent restructuring activities and cost-reduction initiatives including reductions-in-force, reorganization of executive level management and the consolidation of certain of our facilities;
our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on, or to refinance our indebtedness, including our term loan and convertible notes obligations;
our ability to introduce and sell new products that comply with current and evolving industry standards and government regulations;
our ability to develop and maintain strategic relationships to expand into new markets;
our ability to properly manage the growth of our business to avoid significant strains on our management and operations and disruptions to our business;
our reliance on third parties to manufacture our products;
our ability to mitigate the impact of tariffs or other government-imposed sanctions;
our ability to accurately forecast customer demand and order the manufacture and timely delivery of sufficient product quantities;
our reliance on sole source suppliers for some products and devices used in our solutions;
the continuing impact of uncertain global economic conditions on the demand for our products;
the impact of geopolitical instability on our business;
the impact that new or adjusted tariffs may have on the costs of components or our products, and our ability to sell products internationally;
our ability to be cost competitive while meeting time-to-market requirements for our customers;
our ability to meet the product performance needs of our customers in wireless broadband data access in industrial IoT markets;
demand for fleet, vehicle and asset management software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) telematics solutions;



our dependence on wireless telecommunication operators delivering acceptable wireless services;
the outcome of any pending or future litigation, including intellectual property litigation;
infringement claims with respect to intellectual property contained in our solutions;
our continued ability to license necessary third-party technology for the development and sale of our solutions;
the introduction of new products that could contain errors or defects;
conducting business abroad, including foreign currency risks;
the pace of 5G wireless network rollouts globally and their adoption by customers;
our ability to make focused investments in research and development; and
our ability to hire, retain and manage additional qualified personnel to maintain and expand our business.
The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read together with the other cautionary statements included in this and other reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), including the information in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in Part I of this report. If one or more events related to these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may differ materially from what we anticipate. Unless the context requires otherwise, in this Annual Report on Form 10-K the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” and “Inseego” refer to Inseego Corp., a Delaware corporation, and its wholly owned subsidiaries.
Trademarks
“Inseego”, the Inseego logo, “Novatel Wireless”, the Novatel Wireless logo, “MiFi”, “MiFiiQ”, “MiFi Intelligent Mobile Hotspot”, “MiFi Freedom. My Way.”, “Ctrack”, the Ctrack logo, “Inseego North America”, “Skyus” and “Crossroads” are trademarks or registered trademarks of Inseego and its subsidiaries. Other trademarks, trade names or service marks used in this report are the property of their respective owners.



PART I
Item 1.    Business
Inseego Corp. is a Delaware corporation formed in 2016 as the successor to Novatel Wireless, Inc., a Delaware corporation formed in 1996 (“Novatel Wireless”), resulting from an internal reorganization that was completed in November 2016. Our principal executive office is located at 12600 Deerfield Parkway, Suite 100, Alpharetta, GA 30004, our corporate offices are located at 9605 Scranton Road, Suite 300, San Diego, CA 92121 and our sales and engineering offices are located throughout the world. Inseego’s common stock trades on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the trading symbol “INSG”.
Overview
Inseego Corp. is a leader in the design and development of mobile (advanced 4G and 5G NR), IoT and cloud solutions for large enterprise verticals, service providers and small and medium-sized businesses around the globe. Our product portfolio consists of fixed and mobile device-to-cloud solutions that provide compelling, intelligent, reliable and secure end-to-end IoT services with deep business intelligence. Inseego’s products and solutions power mission critical applications with a “zero unscheduled downtime” mandate, such as 5G fixed wireless access gateway solutions, 4G and 5G mobile broadband, industrial IoT, SD WAN failover management, asset tracking and fleet management services. Our solutions are powered by our key innovations in mobile technologies, including a suite of products employing the 5G NR standards, and purpose-built SaaS cloud platforms.
We have invented and reinvented ways in which the world stays connected, accesses information and derives intelligence from that information. With multiple first-to-market innovations and a strong and growing portfolio of hardware and software innovations for IoT, Inseego has been advancing technology and driving industry transformation for over 30 years. It is this proven expertise, commitment to quality, obsession with innovation and a relentless focus on execution that makes us a preferred global partner of service providers, distributors, value-added resellers, system integrators, and enterprises worldwide.
Industry Trends
For over two decades the mobile industry has experienced tremendous advancements and growth. As the largest technology platform in the world, mobile connectivity has changed the way we work, the way we live and the way we connect with each other. The scale and pace of innovation in mobile technology, especially around connectivity and computing capabilities, is also impacting industries beyond traditional wireless.
Looking forward, Inseego is working with leading companies in the mobile ecosystem to further develop, commercialize and accelerate the availability of 5G NR based solutions, which represents the next generation of mobile technology. 5G has been coined “the 4th industrial revolution” due to the richness of use cases targeted, and refers to 5G NR, which is the standard adopted by 3GPP, an international consortium responsible for the development of mobile standards. 5G has been designed to support faster data rates, lower network latency and wider bandwidths of spectrum. Incorporating many of the innovations developed for 4G LTE, 5G is also expected to be scalable and adaptable across a variety of use cases, which include, among others, empowering new industries and services, such as autonomous vehicles and industrial applications, through ultra-reliable, ultra-low latency communication links and connecting a significant number of IoT service and devices, including devices for connected home and smart cities, with connectivity designed to meet ultra-low power, complexity and cost requirements. 5G is also expected to enhance mobile broadband services, including ultra-high definition (4K HD) video streaming and augmented and virtual reality, with multi-gigabit speeds.
The widespread adoption of IoT in enterprise applications, including within the manufacturing, agriculture, industrial automation, retail and healthcare industries, among others, along with an increasing dependence on smartphones and always-connected computers, the constraints of 4G LTE technology are prompting mobile network operators to embark on an accelerated rollout of 5G communications to keep pace with expected network demands. As the fifth-generation wireless broadband technology, 5G is based on the IEEE 802.11ac standard. The key operating ranges for 5G spectrum globally are in the sub-6 GHz (below 6 GHz), 28 GHz and 39 GHz bands and with speed offerings up to 1Gb per second and millisecond latency, providing better coverage and signaling efficiency. Networks utilizing 5G technology are expected to launch meaningfully in 2019.
Growing demand for high speed data, ever increasing demand for machine-to-machine communications and low latency requirements for new applications are the key factors contributing to the growth of the 5G. 4G LTE will continue to operate alongside 5G as a major part of the mobile ecosystem. According to GSMA’s Intelligence report on The 5G era in the US, “4G and 5G networks will coexist and remain complementary for many years; as such, operators can service a significant share of the data traffic on 4G networks, leaving 5G with the dual remit of absorbing overflow capacity and underpinning consumer and

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enterprise services that require higher speeds and/or lower latency.” As such, most 5G devices are expected to include multimode support for 3G, 4G and Wi-Fi, enabling service continuity where 5G has yet to be deployed and simultaneous connectivity across 4G and Wi-Fi technologies, while also allowing mobile operators to utilize current network deployments. At the same time, 4G is expected to continue to evolve in parallel with the development of 5G and become fundamental to many of the key 5G technologies, such as support for unlicensed spectrum, gigabit LTE user data rates (currently available from Inseego) and cellular IoT with connectivity designed to meet the needs of ultra-low power and low cost applications. The first phase of 5G networks are expected to support mobile broadband services in lower spectrum below 6 GHz (sub-6 GHz) bands, as well as higher millimeter wave (“mmWave”) bands.
Analyst firm CCS Insights (“CCS”) recently increased its predictions for the size of the global 5G market, based on the fact that numerous operators around the world were bringing services to market more quickly than they had originally indicated. CCS estimates that global 5G connections will hit 340 million in 2021 and pass the one billion mark in the first half of 2023. By 2025, the firm says 5G connections will number 2.7 billion, or more than one out of every five connections in the world. GSMA Intelligence anticipates that the U.S. will have “one of the fastest customer migrations to 5G in the world,” with 5G mobile connections reaching 100 million in early 2023 and more than 190 million by 2025.
We continue to work closely with mobile operators, chipset suppliers and infrastructure vendors around the world on 5G developments and trials in preparation for commercial network launches.
The adoption of IoT technology continues to grow as companies across a wide range of industries are leveraging cellular IoT technologies to increase efficiency, gain better customer insights, facilitate compliance and build new business models. IoT growth is expanding broadly, and adoption is particularly strong in the telematics and transportation industries and in industrial IoT markets such as smart city infrastructure, utilities and energy management. We are building IoT capabilities by leveraging business models that monetize usage on most major carrier networks. We have developed IoT solutions that address key market needs for asset tracking applications, telematics, SD WAN failover management, retail, remote monitoring and various other industrial applications. In addition, our cloud solutions can turn the data that our solutions provide into actionable insights for our customers so they can develop new services and create revenue growth.
Our IoT solutions enable applications for various vertical markets, such as fleet and asset tracking and telematics, smart city applications to improve public safety, traffic management and energy management. Our telematics business offers a full array of solutions to businesses that combine location-based software, fleet and asset management services and data intelligence. We enable our customers to track, safeguard and optimize their most prized assets: people, vehicles, equipment and data. Inseego telematics, sold under the Ctrack brand, is a top commercial telematics provider globally. We serve both the enterprise and small and medium-sized business market segments with advanced solutions and scale in distribution, research and development, and customer support. Additionally, we are making significant strides penetrating the underserved and burgeoning aviation vertical.
Our Strategy
Our objective is to be a leader in high performance 5G mobile device-to-cloud solutions for large enterprise verticals, service providers and small and medium-sized businesses around the globe. We will meet this objective through innovations we are driving in IoT, mobile and SaaS technologies. In furtherance of that objective, we will continue to focus on developing mission critical enterprise applications with a “zero unscheduled downtime” mandate, such as mobile and fixed broadband, industrial IoT, SD WAN failover management, asset tracking and fleet management services. Our solutions will be powered by our key innovations in IoT, purpose-built SaaS platforms and advanced mobile technologies, including emerging 5G NR.
The key elements of our strategy are to:
Capitalize on our direct relationships with wireless operators, original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) and component suppliers. We intend to continue to capitalize on our direct and long-standing relationships with wireless operators, OEMs and component suppliers in order to strengthen our worldwide market position, using these long standing relationships to springboard both the expansion of the 4G and 4G LTE platforms globally, and influence the adoption of our 5G NR products around the world.
Expand our IoT solutions portfolio by leveraging our core mobile technologies and platforms developed for our mobile portfolio. We intend to expand our IoT solutions portfolio with end-to-end solutions that include edge devices based on the latest mobile technologies and cloud solutions.
Aggressively expand our go-to-market offerings through sales and marketing expansion, channel development and strategic partnerships. We intend to expand our go-to-market IoT, mobile and cloud offerings in North America as well as in international markets.

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Improve SaaS solution penetration. Through our Ctrack telematics and asset tracking platform and subscription management solutions, we provide customers around the world with actionable insights and workflow efficiencies with high security from our cutting-edge cloud platforms. We will continue to expand these solutions into new markets such as the aviation vertical.
Increase the value of our offerings. As we seek to capitalize on potential growth opportunities, we continue to develop cutting edge IoT, mobile and cloud solutions, with specific focus on end-to-end solutions that enable the best IoT and mobile experience for our customers. For instance, in the Ctrack cloud aviation solution, we allow Ground Support Equipment providers to achieve maximum utilization levels, maximum efficiency gains, and eliminate downtime for business-critical ground support equipment. In addition, our complete portfolio of advanced 4G solutions in conjunction with our new 5G solution portfolio opens us up to larger worldwide potential markets. Finally, continued investment within both edge devices and cloud platform solutions in predictive analytics, machine learning, and edge intelligence should expand our market opportunities.
Our Sources of Revenue
We provide intelligent wireless 3G, 4G and 5G hardware products for the worldwide mobile communications and industrial IoT markets. Our hardware products address multiple vertical markets including fleet and commercial telematics, aftermarket telematics, smart city infrastructure management, remote monitoring and control, wireless surveillance systems, security and connected home and fixed wireless access and mobile broadband devices. Our broad range of products principally includes intelligent 4G and 5G mobile hotspots, wireless gateways and routers for IoT applications, 1Gigabit (“Gb”) speed 4G LTE hotspots and USB modems, integrated telematics and mobile tracking hardware devices, which are supported by applications software and cloud services designed to enable customers to easily analyze data insights and configure/manage their hardware remotely. Our products currently operate on most major cellular wireless technology platforms. Our mobile hotspots, sold under the MiFi and MiFiiQ brands, have been sold to millions of customers to provide subscribers with secure and convenient high-speed access to corporate, public and personal information through the Internet and enterprise networks. Our wireless standalone and USB modems and gateways allow us to address the rapidly growing and underpenetrated IoT market segments. Our telematics and mobile asset tracking hardware devices collect and control critical vehicle data and driver behaviors, and can reliably deliver that information to the cloud, all managed by our services enablement platforms.
We provide intelligent mobile 4G and 5G devices primarily to wireless operators either directly or through strategic relationships. Our MiFi customer base is comprised of wireless operators, including Verizon Wireless in the United States, Rogers in Canada and Telstra in Australia, as well as distributors and various companies in other vertical markets and geographies.
We sell our wireless routers for industrial IoT, integrated telematics and mobile tracking hardware devices through our direct sales force, value-added resellers and through distributors. The customer base for our wireless products is comprised of transportation companies, industrial enterprises, manufacturers, application service providers, system integrators and distributors in various industries, including fleet and vehicle transportation, ground aviation, energy and industrial automation, security and safety, medical monitoring and government. Integrated telematics and asset tracking devices are also sold under our Ctrack brand and provided as part of our integrated SaaS solutions.
Inseego sells SaaS, software and services solutions across multiple mobile and industrial IoT vertical markets, including fleet management, vehicle telematics, aviation (ground service) telematics, usage-based insurance, stolen vehicle recovery, asset tracking, monitoring, business connectivity and subscription management. Our SaaS platforms are device-agnostic and provide a standardized, scalable way to order, connect and manage remote assets and to improve business operations. The platforms are flexible and support both on-premise server or cloud-based deployments and are the basis for the delivery of a wide range of IoT services in multiple industries.
Our SaaS delivery platforms include our Ctrack platforms, which provide fleet, vehicle, aviation, asset and other telematics applications, and our Device Management Solutions, a hosted SaaS platform that helps organizations manage the selection, deployment and spend of their wireless assets by helping them to save money on personnel and telecom expenses.
For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company’s total net revenues were $202.5 million and $219.3 million, respectively.

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Our Business
IoT and Mobile Business
Our IoT business focuses on addressing applications for a variety of markets including large enterprise verticals and industrial IoT markets. These applications include, among others, smart city infrastructure management, remote monitoring and control, SD WAN failover and enterprise connectivity. Our Skyus-branded wireless gateways, routers and modems serve as connectivity solutions for the rapidly growing and underpenetrated IoT market segments. Worldwide IoT spending is expected to increase at a 14% compound annual growth rate, surpassing $1 trillion in 2020 (International Data Corporation, 2017). With many enterprise customers using our solutions, we believe that we already have a solid footing in this market. We are continuing to invest and grow this portfolio to realize the opportunities in the growing IoT market.
Our mobile business has been driving advanced mobile technologies for a multitude of consumer and enterprise applications for over 20 years. Our product portfolio consists of intelligent mobile broadband solutions, HD quality VoLTE products, residential 4G gateways and an advanced 5G portfolio of products (currently in various stages of development). Our mobile broadband solutions, sold under the MiFi and MiFiiQ brands, are actively used by millions of customers annually to provide subscribers with secure and convenient high-speed access to corporate, public and personal information through the Internet and enterprise networks. The introduction of 5G technology is rapidly expanding new enterprise and consumer market use cases and opportunities, including residential broadband gateways, industrial automation, massive machine connectivity and autonomous vehicles. We believe we are strategically well placed to realize the opportunity for 5G and we are focused on developing a comprehensive portfolio of 5G products for fixed and mobile wireless applications.
Telematics and Asset Tracking Business
Inseego entered the telematics software and services industry through the acquisition of Digicore Holdings Limited (which was renamed Ctrack Holdings (Pty) Ltd) in October 2015. Ctrack was founded in South Africa in 1985, and today Ctrack operations span over 50 countries on six continents. Through a series of global acquisitions and mergers, the Ctrack group broadened its international reach by expanding into the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia/New Zealand and the United States, and using distributors in emerging markets such as Asia and the balance of the African continent.
With more than 30 years of experience, we are recognized as a leading global provider of advanced fleet management telematics and asset tracking solutions that add value to a global base of customers. We design, develop and sell a robust range of asset management and monitoring systems using GPS satellite positioning, advanced cellular communications and advanced sensory technologies. The result is innovative solutions ranging from basic track-and-trace, with stolen vehicle response services, to complete integrated enterprise-level solutions for large fleet owners across the globe.
We believe that our continued emphasis on development of next-generation products keeps Ctrack ahead of the market, meeting demands for value-added, flexible, feature-rich and cost-effective technology across multiple market verticals. Our solutions, coupled with a proven track record in the successful implementation and support of projects of all sizes worldwide, provide Ctrack with a competitive edge with respect to attracting and retaining customers.
Key market verticals supported by our telematics and asset tracking platforms include:
l
Fleet Management
l
Ground Aviation/Airport Asset Tracking
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Government and Municipality Asset Tracking
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Workforce Tracking (including driving behavior)
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Vehicle Tracking/Stolen Vehicle Recovery
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Advanced Data Analytics and Lifecycle Asset Management
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Insurance Telematics
Sales and Marketing
We engage in a wide variety of sales and marketing activities, driving market leadership and global demand through integrated marketing campaigns. This includes product marketing, corporate communications, brand marketing and demand generation.

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Competition
The market for our mobile, IoT and asset tracking/telematics services and solutions is rapidly evolving and highly competitive. It is likely to continue to be affected by new product introductions and industry participants.
We believe the principal competitive factors impacting the market for our products are features and functionality, performance, quality and brand. To maintain and improve our competitive position, we must continue to expand our customer base, invest in research and development, grow our distribution network, and leverage our strategic relationships.
During 2018, the U.S. and other governments imposed import restrictions on products made by certain mainland China-based companies. These restrictions caused an acceleration of global service providers to direct business from such companies to Inseego. We are actively designing devices for use within such providers’ networks.
Our products compete with a variety of telematics solutions providers and IoT solutions suppliers. Our current competitors include:
Fleet management SaaS and services providers, such as Fleetmatics, Masternaut, TomTom, Telogis, MiX Telematics and Cartrack;
Mobile hotspots and wireless data modems providers, such as Netgear, Franklin Wireless, Sierra Wireless, TCL, ZTE and Huawei;
IoT solution providers, such as Cradlepoint and Sierra Wireless; and
Customer experience software solutions and services providers, such as Amdocs.
We believe that we have advantages over our primary competitors due in varying measure to the broad range of customized solutions that we offer, the ease-of-use of our products and our ability to adapt our products to specific customer needs. As the market for our solutions and services expands, other entrants may seek to compete with us either directly or indirectly.
Research and Development
Our research and development efforts are focused on developing innovative mobile devices, including IoT and advanced gateway solutions in both the 4G LTE and 5G markets, and telematics solutions and services, while improving the functionality, design and performance of our current products and solutions. Our research and development expenses for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were approximately $20.6 million and $21.4 million, respectively.
We intend to continue to identify and respond to our customers’ needs by introducing new SaaS, IoT and mobile solutions and product designs that meet the needs of the market and our customers, with an emphasis on creating next generation wireless product platforms targeting mass market initiatives in high growth verticals and technologies such as 5G NR and easy-to-use products and services that enable customers to connect, track, and manage their business systems and assets.
We manage our research and development through a structured life-cycle process, from identifying initial customer requirements through development and commercial introduction to eventual phase-out. During product development, emphasis is placed on quality, reliability, performance, time-to-market, meeting industry standards and customer-product specifications, ease of integration, cost reduction, and manufacturability.
Intellectual Property
Our solutions rely on and benefit from our portfolio of intellectual property, including patents and trademarks. We currently own 74 United States patents and 26 foreign patents. In addition, we currently have 18 patent applications pending. The patents that we currently own expire at various times between 2020 and 2035.
We, along with our subsidiaries, also hold a number of trademarks or registered trademarks including “Inseego”, “Inseego North America”, the Inseego logo, “DigiCore”, “Ctrack”, the Ctrack logo, “Crossroads”, “Skyus”, “Novatel Wireless”, the Novatel Wireless logo, “MiFi”, “MiFiiQ”, “MiFi Intelligent Mobile Hotspot” and “MiFi Freedom. My Way.”
Key Partners and Customers
We have strategic technology, development and marketing relationships with several of our customers and partners. Our strong customer and partner relationships provide us with the opportunity to expand our market reach and sales. We partner with leading OEMs such as Qualcomm, wireless telecom service providers, value-added resellers and distributors which allows us to offer customers integrated and holistic solutions. Ctrack uses leading cellular providers such as AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Vodafone, MTN, Telstra and Optus to ensure the optimal real-time visibility of tracked vehicles and systems, supported by accurate and sophisticated mapping services such as the HERE Open Location Platform.

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Customers for our products include transportation companies, industrial companies, governmental agencies, manufacturers, application service providers, system integrators and distributors and enterprises in various industries, including fleet and vehicle transportation, finance, accounting, legal, insurance, energy and industrial automation, security and safety, medical monitoring and government.
Our telematics customer base is comprised of wireless operators, distributors, OEMs and various companies in other vertical markets. Fleet management customers include global enterprises such as BHP Billiton, Super Group, Mammoet and Australia Post. Airport asset tracking customers include KLM Equipment Services and Hanover Airport, amongst others.
Our customers for our business connectivity products include EnerNOC, Thermo Fisher Scientific, US Army, Fastenal, T-Mobile, Sprint and Verizon Wireless, amongst others. Our customers for our device management solutions include T-Mobile and Sprint.
A significant portion of our revenue during the year ended December 31, 2018 came from one customer, Verizon Wireless, which represented approximately 49% of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018. It is our intention to diversify our customer base.
Manufacturing and Operations
The hardware used in our solutions is produced by contract manufacturers. Our current contract manufacturers include Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. (“Foxconn”) and AsiaTelco Technologies Co. In the fourth quarter of 2018, we transitioned to using Foxconn as our primary contract manufacturer for reasons of capacity, quality assurance and to complete the move of the manufacturing of our U.S. market-bound products outside of mainland China. Under our manufacturing agreements, such contract manufacturers provide us with services including component procurement, product manufacturing, final assembly, testing, quality control and fulfillment. These contract manufacturers are located in Asia and are able to produce our products using modern state-of-the-art equipment and facilities with relatively low-cost labor.
We outsource our higher volume manufacturing in an effort to:
focus on our core competencies of design, development and marketing;
minimize our capital expenditures and lease obligations;
realize manufacturing economies of scale;
achieve production scalability by adjusting manufacturing volumes to meet changes in demand; and
access best-in-class component procurement and manufacturing resources.
Our operations team manages our relationships with the contract manufacturers as well as other key suppliers. Our operations team focuses on supply chain management and logistics, product quality, inventory and cost optimization, customer fulfillment and new product introduction. We develop and control the software that goes on our devices.
Employees
At December 31, 2018, we had 819 employees. We also use the services of consultants and temporary workers from time to time. With the exception of a small number of our employees in South Africa, our employees are not represented by any collective bargaining unit and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good.
Website Access to SEC Filings
We maintain an Internet website at www.inseego.com. The information contained on our website or that can be accessed through our website does not constitute a part of this report. We make available, free of charge through our Internet website, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file or furnish this information to the SEC.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors
The risks and uncertainties described below are those that we currently deem to be material, and do not represent all of the risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently do not consider material may in the future become material and impair our business operations. Some of the risks and uncertainties described herein have been grouped so that related risks can be viewed together. You should not draw conclusions regarding the relative magnitude or likelihood of any risk based on the order in which risks or uncertainties are presented herein. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business could be materially harmed, and our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. As a result, the trading price of our securities could decline. You should also refer to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes.
GENERAL RISK FACTORS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS
Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and may fluctuate in the future, which could cause declines or volatility in the price of our common stock.
Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and may fluctuate in the future as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. If our quarterly operating results or guidance fall below the expectations of research analysts or investors, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. The following factors, among others, could cause fluctuations in our quarterly operating results:
our ability to attract new customers and retain existing customers;
our ability to accurately forecast revenue and appropriately plan our expenses;
our ability to accurately predict changes in customer demand due to matters beyond our control;
our ability to introduce new features, including integration of our existing solutions with third-party software and devices;
the actions of our competitors, including consolidation within the industry, pricing changes or the introduction of new services;
our ability to effectively manage our growth;
our ability to attract and retain key employees;
our ability to successfully manage and realize the anticipated benefits of any future acquisitions of businesses, solutions or technologies;
our ability to successfully launch new services or solutions or sell existing services or solutions into additional geographies or vertical markets;
the timing and cost of developing or acquiring technologies, services or businesses;
the timing, operating costs, and capital expenditures related to the operation, maintenance and expansion of our business;
service outages or security breaches and any related occurrences which could impact our reputation;
the impact of worldwide economic, industry, and market conditions, including disruptions in financial markets and the deterioration of the underlying economic conditions in some countries, and those conditions specific to Internet usage and online businesses;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates, particularly the South African Rand to U.S. Dollar exchange rate;
trade protection measures (such as tariffs and duties) and import or export licensing requirements;
costs associated with defending intellectual property infringement and other claims;
changes in law and regulations affecting our business; and
provision of fleet management solutions or asset management solutions from cellular carrier-controlled or OEM-controlled channels from which Inseego may be excluded.
We believe that our quarterly revenue and operating results may vary significantly in the future and that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. You should not rely on the results of any quarter as an indication of future performance.

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We have an accumulated deficit and may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability, which may negatively impact our ability to achieve our business objectives.
We have reported net losses in each of the last four fiscal years, and we cannot predict when we will become profitable or if such profitability can be sustained. We expect to continue making significant expenditures to develop and expand our business. Any growth in our revenue or customer base may not be sustainable, and we may not generate sufficient revenue to become profitable. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including the other risks described in this section, and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays and other unknown events. Accordingly, we may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability, and the failure to fund our capital requirements may negatively impact our ability to achieve our business objectives.
A failure to successfully integrate the information systems of our acquired companies could adversely affect our business and operations.
In connection with our acquisitions of Feeney Wireless, LLC (which was renamed Inseego North America, LLC (“INA”)) and Ctrack, we are continuing to integrate our information systems and infrastructure for the combined businesses. There are a number of risks associated with such a system integration effort, including the following:
integrating systems from acquired businesses is a difficult, expensive and time-consuming process and the failure to successfully manage such integrations could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations; and
the acquisitions of INA and Ctrack changed the nature of the business in which we historically operated from primarily selling communications-related hardware to include a solutions and software business in the emerging IoT market, and the systems necessary to support these businesses are very different.
If we are not able to effectively integrate these businesses, or fail to address the changed nature of our business as part of our integration initiatives, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
The 5G market may take longer to materialize than we expect or, if it does materialize rapidly, we may not be able to meet the development schedule and other customer demands.
Growth of the 5G market, including the newly defined 5G NR standard, is accelerating and we believe that we are at the forefront of this newly emerging standard. However, this market may take longer to materialize than we expect which could delay important commercial network launches. Even if the market does materialize at the rapid pace that we are expecting, we may have difficulties meeting aggressive timing expectations of our current customers and getting our target products to market on time to meet the demands of our target customers. The 5G market requires us to design routers and antennas that meet certain technical specifications. We may have difficulties meeting the market and technical specifications and time lines. Additionally, our target customers have no guarantee that the configurations of their respective target products will be successful or that they can reach the appropriate target client base to provide a positive return on the research and development investments we are making in the 5G market. We are pursuing 5G opportunities in the United States and abroad. 5G markets outside of the United States will develop at different rates and we will encounter these challenges to varying degrees in different countries. Failure to manage challenges related to 5G markets and opportunities could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our plan to position the Company as a leading provider of industrial IoT products and services to its customer base could subject us to increased costs and related risks and may not achieve the intended results.
Our strategic plan to position the Company as a leading provider of high value industrial IoT products and services could subject us to unexpected costs and risks. Such activities could subject us to increased operating costs, product liability, regulatory requirements and reputational risks. Our expansion into new and existing markets and implementation of our strategic plan may present competitive and distribution challenges that differ from those of our historical business model. We may be less familiar with the target customers and may face different or additional risks, as well as increased or unexpected costs, compared to existing operations. Growth into new markets may also bring us into direct competition with companies with whom we have little or no past experience as competitors. To the extent we are reliant upon expansion into new product markets and implementation of our strategic plan for growth and do not meet the new challenges posed by such expansion and implementation, our future sales growth could be negatively impacted, our operating costs could increase, and our business operations and financial results could be negatively affected. Implementing our plan to position the Company as a leading provider of industrial IoT products and solutions has required, and is expected to continue to require, additional investments by the Company in both product development and go-to-market resources and additional attention from management, and if not successful, we may not realize the return on our investments as anticipated or our operating results could be adversely affected by slower than expected sales growth or additional costs.

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If we fail to develop and timely introduce new products and services or enter new markets for our products and services successfully, we may not achieve our revenue targets, or we may lose key customers or sales and our business could be harmed.
The development of new solutions for mobile broadband data, vehicle tracking, asset management, fleet management and telemetry applications can be difficult, time-consuming and costly. There are inherent risks and uncertainties associated with offering new products and services, especially when new markets are not fully developed, related technology standards are not mature, or when the laws and regulations regarding a new product or solution are not mature. Factors outside of our control, such as developing laws and regulations, regulatory orders, competitive product offerings and changes in commercial and consumer demand for products or services may also materially impact the successful implementation of new products or services. As we introduce new products or solutions, our current customers may not require or desire the features of these new offerings and may not purchase them or might purchase them in smaller quantities than we had expected. We may face similar risks that our products or solutions will not be accepted by customers as we enter new markets for our solutions, both in the United States and international markets.
Further, as part of our business, we may enter into contracts with some customers in which we would agree to develop products or solutions that we would sell to such customers. Our ability to generate future revenue and operating income under any such contracts would depend upon, among other factors, our ability to timely and profitably develop products or solutions that can be cost-effectively deployed and that meet required design, technical and performance specifications.
If we are unable to successfully manage these risks or meet required delivery specifications or deadlines in connection with one or more of our key contracts, we may lose key customers or orders and our business could be harmed.
An assertion by a third party that we are infringing its intellectual property could subject us to costly and time- consuming litigation or expensive licenses and our business could be harmed.
The technology industries involving mobile data communications, IoT devices, software and services are characterized by the existence of a large number of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets and by frequent litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. Much of this litigation involves patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenues of their own, and against whom our own patent portfolio may provide little or no deterrence. One or more patent infringement lawsuits from non-practicing entities are brought against us or our subsidiaries each year in the ordinary course of business.
We cannot assure you that we or our subsidiaries will prevail in any current or future intellectual property infringement or other litigation given the complex technical issues and inherent uncertainties in such litigation. Defending such claims, regardless of their merit, could be time-consuming and distracting to management, result in costly litigation or settlement, cause development delays, or require us or our subsidiaries to enter into royalty or licensing agreements. In addition, we or our subsidiaries could be obligated to indemnify our customers against third parties’ claims of intellectual property infringement based on our products or solutions. If our products or solutions violate any third-party intellectual property rights, we could be required to withdraw them from the market, re-develop them or seek to obtain licenses from third parties, which might not be available on reasonable terms or at all. Any efforts to re-develop our products or solutions, obtain licenses from third parties on favorable terms or license a substitute technology might not be successful and, in any case, might substantially increase our costs and harm our business, financial condition and operating results. Withdrawal of any of our products or solutions from the market could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
In addition, we incorporate open source software into our products and solutions. Given the nature of open source software, third parties might assert copyright and other intellectual property infringement claims against us based on our use of certain open source software programs. The terms of many open source licenses to which we are subject have not been interpreted by U.S. courts or courts of other jurisdictions, and there is a risk that those licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products and solutions. In that event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our products and solutions, to re-develop our solutions, to discontinue sales of our solutions, or to release our proprietary software source code under the terms of an open source license, any of which could adversely affect our business.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, our competitive position and our business could be harmed.
We rely on a combination of patent laws, trademark laws, copyright laws, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights. However, our issued patents and any future patents that may issue may not survive a legal challenge to their scope, validity or enforceability, or provide significant protection for us. The failure of our patents to adequately protect our technology might make it easier for our competitors to

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offer similar products or technologies. In addition, patents may not issue from any of our current or any future applications and significant portions of our intellectual property are held in the form of trade secrets which are not protected by patents.
Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly. The steps we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to prevent misappropriation of our intellectual property. We may not be able to detect unauthorized use of, or take appropriate steps to enforce, our intellectual property rights. Our competitors may also independently develop similar technology. In addition, the laws of many countries do not protect our proprietary rights to as great an extent as do the laws of the United States. Any failure by us to meaningfully protect our intellectual property could result in competitors offering products that incorporate our most technologically advanced features, which could seriously reduce demand for our products and solutions. In addition, we may in the future need to initiate infringement claims or litigation. Litigation, whether we are a plaintiff or a defendant, can be expensive, time consuming and may divert the efforts of our technical staff and managerial personnel, which could harm our business, whether or not such litigation results in a determination favorable to us.
We may not be able to maintain and expand our business if we are not able to hire, retain and manage additional qualified personnel.
Our success in the future depends in part on the continued contribution of our executive, technical, engineering, sales, marketing, operations and administrative personnel. Recruiting and retaining skilled personnel in the industries in which we operate, including engineers and other technical staff and skilled sales and marketing personnel, is highly competitive. In addition, in the event that we acquire another business or company, the success of any acquisition will depend in part on our retention and integration of key personnel from the acquired company or business.
Although we may enter into employment agreements with members of our senior management and other key personnel, these arrangements do not prevent any of our management or key personnel from leaving the Company. If we are not able to attract or retain qualified personnel in the future, or if we experience delays in hiring required personnel, particularly qualified technical and sales personnel, we may not be able to maintain and expand our business.
The mobile hotspot business is subject to a number of challenges that are difficult to overcome.
The mobile hotspot business has relatively low gross margins and operates in a very competitive market environment. While our mobile hotspot products tend to have advanced features which often enable them to be sold at premium prices when they are first introduced, we also have higher costs than most of our competitors due to our small scale and heavy use of U.S. based engineers in product development. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources and scale, as would be expected in the relatively mature, consumer electronics product categories which comprise our mobile hotspot business. Our wireless data modem and mobile hotspots, for example, compete against similar products offered by Huawei, ZTE, Sierra Wireless, TCL, Franklin Wireless and NetGear. More broadly, those products also compete against wireless handset manufacturers such as HTC, Apple, LG and Samsung, which all offer mobile hotspot capability as a feature of their cellular smartphones. Failure to manage these challenges, or failure of our hotspot product or service offerings to be successful and profitable, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our debt service requirements are significant, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.
Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on, or to refinance our indebtedness, including the term loan (the “Term Loan”) under our Credit Agreement (as defined below), the 5.50% convertible senior notes due 2020 (the “Novatel Wireless Notes”) and the 5.50% convertible senior notes due 2022 (the “Inseego Notes” and collectively with the Novatel Wireless Notes, the “Convertible Notes”), depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and other fixed charges, fund working capital needs and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, refinancing or restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or dilutive. Our ability to refinance or restructure our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on favorable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.
Interest rates on our Term Loan are tied to the LIBOR plus a fixed percentage. Increases in the LIBOR will increase our debt service costs/interest payments.
If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow or otherwise obtain funds necessary to make required payments, or if we fail to comply with the various requirements of our existing indebtedness or any other indebtedness which we may incur in the future, we would be in default, which could permit the holders of our indebtedness, including the Term Loan and the

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Convertible Notes, to accelerate the maturity of such indebtedness. Any default under such indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Despite our current consolidated debt levels, we may incur additional debt in compliance with our existing obligations.
Despite our current consolidated debt levels, we and our subsidiaries may be able to incur additional debt in the future, including secured debt. The Inseego Notes are governed by the terms of an indenture, dated January 9, 2017 (the “Inseego Indenture”), between the Company, as issuer, and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee, which contains covenants that are effective until June 15, 2020 limiting our and our subsidiaries’ ability to incur additional secured indebtedness in the future, but it will not completely prohibit the incurrence of such secured debt. Although the terms of the Inseego Indenture contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, those restrictions are subject to a number of significant qualifications and exceptions and the amount of capital indebtedness that could be incurred in connection with those exceptions could be substantial.
Changes in the method for determining LIBOR and the potential replacement of LIBOR may affect interest rates on our credit facilities.
LIBOR, the London interbank offered rate, is the basic rate of interest used in lending between banks on the London interbank market and is widely used as a reference for setting the interest rate on loans globally. Interest rates under our Credit Agreement are based on either LIBOR or a base rate, plus a spread over the applicable index. On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to phase out LIBOR by the end of 2021. It is unclear if at that time LIBOR will cease to exist or if new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. If the method for calculation of LIBOR changes, if LIBOR is no longer available or if lenders have increased costs due to changes in LIBOR, we may be adversely affected by potential increases in interest rates on any borrowings. Further, we may need to renegotiate our credit agreements that utilize LIBOR as a factor in determining the interest rate to replace LIBOR with the new standard that is established.
The Credit Agreement relating to our Term Loan contains customary operational covenants, our failure to comply with which could result in a default under the Credit Agreement as well as a cross-default under the Inseego Indenture.
The credit agreement, dated August 23, 2017 (the “Credit Agreement”), by and among the Company and certain of our direct and indirect subsidiaries (the “Guarantors”), Cantor Fitzgerald Securities, as administrative agent and collateral agent, and certain funds managed by Highbridge Capital Management, LLC, as lenders (the “Lenders”) which governs our Term Loan contains usual and customary restrictive covenants relating to the management and operation of our business, and it is likely that any future debt arrangements we may enter into would contain similar covenants. Failure to comply with any of the covenants under the Credit Agreement or any other debt agreement could result in a default under such an agreement and a cross-default under the Inseego Indenture, which could permit the holders of the Inseego Notes to accelerate the maturity of such indebtedness. Any default or cross-default under such indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial results.
The indebtedness under our Credit Agreement is secured by certain of our assets, including the equity interests of certain of our direct and indirect subsidiaries. As a result of this security interest, such assets would only be available to satisfy claims of our general creditors or to holders of our equity securities if we were to become insolvent to the extent that the value of such assets exceeded the amount of our indebtedness and other obligations under the Credit Agreement.
Indebtedness under our Credit Agreement is secured by a lien on most of our assets, including the equity interests of certain of our direct and indirect subsidiaries. Accordingly, if an event of default were to occur under the Credit Agreement, such as a bankruptcy, insolvency, liquidation or other reorganization, the Lenders would have a priority right to such assets, to the exclusion of our general creditors. In that event, such assets would first be used to repay in full all indebtedness and other obligations under the Credit Agreement, resulting in all or a portion of such assets being unavailable to satisfy the claims of our unsecured creditors. Only after satisfying the claims of our unsecured creditors and our subsidiaries’ unsecured creditors would any amount be available for distribution to holders of our equity securities.
If our reorganization and restructuring activities fail to achieve targeted cost and expense reductions our business and financial performance may be adversely affected.
In June 2017, we announced a restructuring plan aimed at reducing our cost of revenues and operating expenses. This restructuring plan was designed to improve our strategic focus on our most profitable business lines and consolidate operations of certain of our subsidiaries with those of the Company, including reductions-in-force, further reorganization of executive level management and the consolidation of certain of our facilities. While our focus on controlling and reducing costs is ongoing, we face a variety of risks and uncertainties relating to the effectiveness of such activities. Any delays in the implementation of our restructuring plan or unforeseen expenses related to such activities could have a material adverse effect

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on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, as we expand our product portfolio, and expand into new and geographically dispersed service providers, we will incur additional costs associated with go to market, product development and carrier certification activities.
The reorganization and restructuring announced in June 2017 may not yield the expected results, or may result in additional expenditures.
The reorganization and restructuring announced in June 2017 may fail to reduce the Company’s expenditure rate to the correct level. In addition, we may incur additional expenditures or other adverse effects as a result of the reorganization and restructuring which may:
require us to further reduce our expenditure rate, which may impact planned research and development activities or other operating expenses;
make it difficult to retain key personnel; and
prevent us from growing sales/revenue with existing customers or adding new customers.
Our ability to transition to more profitable operations is dependent upon the Company achieving a level of revenue adequate to support our evolving cost structure. If events or circumstances occur such that we do not meet our operating plan as expected, or if we become obligated to pay unforeseen expenditures as a result of our reorganization and restructuring activities, we may never achieve our intended business objectives, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Uncertainties relating to recent changes in our management team may adversely affect our operations.
Over the last two years, we have experienced significant turnover and additions to our senior management. While we expect to engage in an orderly transition process as we integrate newly appointed officers and managers, we face a variety of risks and uncertainties relating to the lack of management continuity, including diversion of management attention from business concerns, failure to retain other key personnel or inability to hire new key personnel. These risks and uncertainties could result in operational and administrative inefficiencies and added costs, which could adversely impact our results of operations, stock price and customer relationships.
The Company has entered into a Rights Agreement, and if the holders exercise their share purchase rights under such agreement, it could materially adversely affect the price of our common stock and cause dilution to our existing stockholders.
We entered into a rights agreement on January 22, 2018, with Computershare Trust Company, N.A., a federally chartered trust company, as Rights Agent (as subsequently amended, the “Rights Agreement”), that was approved by our stockholders at our 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. The Rights Agreement is intended to discourage acquisitions of our common stock which could result in a cumulative change in ownership of more than 50% within a rolling three-year period, thereby preserving our current ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards to offset future income tax obligations, which would become subject to limitations if we were to experience an “ownership change,” as defined under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. While this Rights Agreement is intended to preserve our current ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards, it effectively deters current and future purchasers from accumulating more than 4.9% of our common stock, which could delay or discourage takeover attempts that stockholders may consider favorable. In addition, if the share purchase rights under the Rights Agreement are exercised, additional shares of our common stock will be issued, which could cause dilution to our current stockholders. Moreover, sales in the public market of any shares of our common stock issuable upon such exercise, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock. These issuances would also cause our per share net income, if any, to decrease in future periods.
RISKS RELATED TO CORPORATE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
If we do not properly manage the development of our business, we may experience significant strains on our management and operations and disruptions in our business.
Various risks arise if companies and industries quickly grow or evolve. If our business or industry develops more quickly than our ability to respond, our ability to meet customer demand in a timely and efficient manner could be challenged. We may also experience development, certification or production delays as we seek to meet demand for our products or unanticipated product requirements. Our failure to properly manage the developments that we or our industry might experience could negatively impact our ability to execute on our operating plan and, accordingly, could have an adverse impact on our business, our cash flow and results of operations and our reputation with our current or potential customers.

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We may, as part of our growth strategy, acquire companies and businesses, and/or divest assets or businesses. The completion of acquisition or divestiture transactions could have an adverse effect on our financial condition.
As part of our business strategy, we may review acquisition and divestiture opportunities that we believe would be advantageous or complementary to the development of our business. Based on these opportunities, we may acquire additional businesses, assets or technologies in the future. Alternatively, we may divest businesses, assets or technologies. All of these activities are subject to risks and uncertainties and could disrupt or harm our business. For example, if we make an acquisition, we could take any or all of the following actions, any one of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or stock price:
use a substantial portion of our available cash;
incur substantial debt, which may not be available to us on favorable terms and may adversely affect our liquidity;
issue equity or equity-based securities that would dilute the percentage ownership of existing stockholders;
assume contingent liabilities; and
take substantial charges in connection with acquired assets.
Acquired businesses may have liabilities or adverse operating issues that we fail to discover through due diligence prior to the acquisition, such as:
failure by previous management to comply with applicable laws or regulations;
inaccurate representations; and
unfulfilled contractual obligations to customers or vendors.
Following acquisitions and/or divestitures, our reorganized business may not perform as we or the market expects, which could have an adverse effect on the price of our common stock.
The reorganized company resulting from any acquisitions and/or divestitures we pursue and consummate may not perform as we or the market expect. Risks associated with such acquisitions and divestitures include the following:
integrating new business acquisitions and divesting existing lines of business is a difficult, expensive and time-consuming process and will divert management’s attention from existing operations, and the failure to successfully manage such transitions could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations;
acquisitions and divestitures may change the nature of the business in which we have historically operated, including entering markets in which we have limited or no prior experience, and if we are not able to effectively adjust to such changes in the fundamental nature of our business, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected;
our assumptions with respect to future revenue, growth rates, expense rates and synergies resulting from acquisitions and/or divestitures may prove to be inaccurate, which may adversely affect the price of our common stock;
it is possible that our key employees might decide not to remain with us as a result of these changes in our business or for other reasons, and the loss of such personnel could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects;
relationships with third parties, including key vendors and customers, may be affected by changes in our business resulting from these acquisitions and divestitures, and any adverse changes in these third party relationships could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations; and
the price of our common stock may be affected by factors different from those that affected the price of our common stock prior to such acquisitions and/or divestitures.
As a result, if we fail to properly evaluate or implement acquisitions or divestitures, we may not achieve the anticipated benefits of any such transactions, and we may incur unanticipated costs, either of which could harm our business and operating results.
RISKS RELATED TO COMPETITION
The market for the products and services that we offer is rapidly evolving and highly competitive. We may be unable to compete effectively.
The market for the products and services that we offer is rapidly evolving and highly competitive. We expect competition to continue to increase and intensify, especially in the 5G market. Many of our competitors or potential competitors have significantly greater financial, technical, operational and marketing resources than we do. These competitors, for example, may be able to respond more rapidly or more effectively than we can to new or emerging technologies, changes in customer

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requirements, supplier-related developments, or a shift in the business landscape. They also may devote greater or more effective resources than we do to the development, manufacture, promotion, sale, and post-sale support of their respective products and services.
Many of our current and potential competitors have more extensive customer bases and broader customer, supplier and other industry relationships that they can leverage to establish competitive dealings with many of our current and potential customers. Some of these companies also have more established and larger customer support organizations than we do. In addition, these companies may adopt more aggressive pricing policies or offer more attractive terms to customers than they currently do, or than we are able to do. They may bundle their competitive products with broader product offerings and may introduce new products, services and enhancements. Current and potential competitors might merge or otherwise establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties to enhance their products, services or market position. In addition, at any time any given customer or supplier of ours could elect to enter our then existing line of business and thereafter compete with us, whether directly or indirectly. As a result, it is possible that new competitors or new or otherwise enhanced relationships among existing competitors may emerge and rapidly acquire significant market share to the detriment of our business.
Our products compete with a variety of solutions, including other wireless modems and mobile hotspots, wireless handsets, wireless handheld computing devices, IoT wireless solutions and enterprise software solutions. Our current competitors include:
fleet management SaaS and services providers, such as Fleetmatics, Masternaut, TomTom, Telogis, MiX Telematics and Cartrack;
mobile hotspots providers, such as Netgear and Franklin Wireless;
IoT solution providers, such as Cradlepoint and Sierra Wireless; and
customer experience software solutions and services providers, such as Amdocs.
We expect our competitors to continue to improve the features and performance of their current products and to introduce new products, services and technologies which, if successful, could reduce our sales and the market acceptance of our products, generate increased price competition and make our products obsolete. For our products to remain competitive, we must, among other things, continue to invest significant resources (financial, human and otherwise) in, among other things, research and development, sales and marketing, and customer support. We cannot be sure that we will have or will continue to have sufficient resources to make these investments or that we will be able to make the technological advances in the marketplace, meet changing customer requirements, achieve market acceptance and respond to our competitors’ products.
The market for asset management and fleet management solutions and the markets for telemetry and tracking solutions are all highly fragmented and competitive, with low barriers to entry. If we do not compete effectively, our operating results may be harmed.
The market for asset management and fleet management solutions and the markets for telemetry and tracking solutions are all highly fragmented, consisting of a large number of vendors, competitive and rapidly changing product and service offerings, with relatively low barriers to entry. Competition in all these markets is based primarily on the level of difficulty in installing, using and maintaining solutions, total cost of ownership, product performance, functionality, interoperability, brand and reputation, distribution channels, industries and the financial resources of the vendor. We expect competition to intensify in the future with the introduction of new technologies and market entrants. For example, in the telematics market, mobile service and software providers, such as Google and makers of GPS navigation devices, such as Garmin, provide limited services at lower prices or at no charge, such as basic GPS- based mapping, tracking and turn-by-turn directions that could be expanded or further developed to more directly compete with our fleet management solutions. In addition, wireless carriers, such as Verizon Wireless, offer fleet management solutions that benefit from the carrier’s scale and cost advantages which we are unable to match. Similarly, vehicle OEMs may provide factory-installed devices and effectively compete against us directly or indirectly by partnering with other fleet management suppliers. We can provide no assurances that we will be able to compete effectively in this ecosystem as the competitive landscape continues to develop. Competition could result in reduced operating margins, increased sales and marketing expenses and the loss of market share, any of which would likely cause serious harm to our operating results.
Industry consolidation may result in increased competition, which could result in a loss of customers or a reduction in revenue.
Some of our competitors have made or may make acquisitions or may enter into partnerships or other strategic relationships to offer more comprehensive services than they individually had offered or achieve greater economies of scale. In addition, new entrants not currently considered to be competitors may enter our market through acquisitions, partnerships or

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strategic relationships. We expect these trends to continue as companies attempt to strengthen or maintain their market positions. Many of the potential entrants may have competitive advantages over us, such as greater name recognition, longer operating histories, more varied services and larger marketing budgets, as well as greater financial, technical and other resources. These pressures could result in a substantial loss of our customers, a reduction in our revenue or increased costs as we seek ways to become more competitive.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR CUSTOMERS AND DEMAND FOR OUR SOLUTIONS
Our inability to adapt to rapid technological change in our markets could impair our ability to remain competitive and adversely affect our results of operations.
All of the markets in which we operate are characterized by rapid technological change, frequent introductions of new products, services and solutions and evolving customer demands. In addition, we are affected by changes in the many industries related to the products or services we offer, including the aviation, automotive, telematics, wireless telemetry, GPS navigation device and work flow software industries. As the technologies used in each of these industries evolves, we will face new integration and competition challenges. For example, as automobile manufacturers evolve in-vehicle technology, GPS tracking devices may become standard equipment in new vehicles and compete against some segments of our telematics or asset tracking service offerings. If we are unable to adapt to rapid technological change, it could adversely affect our results of operations and our ability to remain competitive.
If we fail to develop and maintain strategic relationships, we may not be able to penetrate new markets.
A key element of our business strategy is to penetrate new markets by developing new service offerings through strategic relationships with industry participants. We are currently investing, and plan to continue to invest, significant resources to develop these relationships. We believe that our success in penetrating new markets for our products will depend, in part, on our ability to develop and maintain these relationships and to cultivate additional or alternative relationships. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to develop additional strategic relationships, that existing relationships will survive and successfully achieve their purposes or that the companies with whom we have strategic relationships will not form competing arrangements with others or determine to compete with us.
We depend upon Verizon Wireless for a substantial portion of our revenues, and our business would be negatively affected by an adverse change in our dealings with this customer.
As a result of the significant revenues associated with our MiFi Business, sales to Verizon Wireless accounted for 49% and 51% of our consolidated net revenues for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. While we have accelerated our engagements with prospective new MiFi customers and continue to focus on growing revenue in other parts of our business, we expect that Verizon Wireless will continue to account for a substantial portion of our net revenues, and any impairment of our relationship with Verizon Wireless would adversely affect our business. Additionally, any change in the forecasted or actual product sell-through of Verizon Wireless could have a detrimental impact on our revenue, bottom line and cash position.
We may not be able to retain and increase sales to our existing customers, which could negatively impact our financial results.
We generally seek to license our software and enterprise solutions pursuant to customer agreements with multi-year terms and subscriptions. However, our customers have no obligation to renew these agreements after their initial terms expire. We also actively seek to sell additional solutions to our existing customers. If our efforts to satisfy our existing customers are not successful, we may not be able to retain them or sell additional functionality to them and, as a result, our revenue and ability to grow could be adversely affected. Customers may choose not to renew their subscriptions for many reasons, including the belief that our service is not required for their business needs or is otherwise not cost-effective, a desire to reduce discretionary spending, or a belief that our competitors’ services provide better value. Additionally, our customers may not renew for reasons entirely out of our control, such as the dissolution of their business or an economic downturn in their industry. A significant increase in our churn rate would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.
A part of our growth strategy is to sell additional new features and solutions to our existing customers. Our ability to sell new features to customers will depend in significant part on our ability to anticipate industry evolution, practices and standards and to continue to enhance existing solutions or introduce or acquire new solutions on a timely basis to keep pace with technological developments both within our industry and in related industries, and to remain compliant with any regulations mandated by federal agencies or state-mandated or foreign government regulations as they pertain to our customers. However, we may prove unsuccessful either in developing new features or in expanding the third-party software and products with which our solutions integrate. In addition, the success of any enhancement or new feature depends on several factors, including the timely completion, introduction and market acceptance of the enhancement or feature. Any new solutions we develop or

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acquire might not be introduced in a timely or cost-effective manner and might not achieve the broad market acceptance necessary to generate significant revenue. If any of our competitors implement new technologies before we are able to implement them or better anticipate the innovation and integration opportunities in related industries, those competitors may be able to provide more effective or cheaper solutions than ours.
Another part of our growth strategy is to sell additional subscriptions to existing customers as their fleet sizes or asset portfolios increase. We cannot be assured that our customers’ fleet sizes or asset portfolios will continue to increase. A significant decrease in our ability to sell additional functionality or subscriptions to existing customers could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.
Loss of, or a significant reduction in business from, one or more enterprise or government customers could adversely affect our revenue and profitability.
Loss of one or more of our large enterprise or government customers could result in a meaningful decrease in revenue and profitability, as well as a material increase in our customer churn rate. Because of the variability of industries in which our enterprise and government customers operate and the unpredictability of economic conditions in any particular industry which comprises a significant number of our enterprise or government customers, the composition of, and the volume of business from, our enterprise and government customers is likely to change over time. If we lose one or more large enterprise or government customers, or if we experience a significant reduction in business from one or more large enterprise or government customers, there is no assurance that we would be able to replace those customers to generate comparable revenue over a short time period, which could harm our operating results and profitability.
Adverse economic conditions or reduced spending on information technology solutions may adversely impact our revenue and profitability.
Uncertainty about future economic conditions makes it difficult for us to forecast operating results and to make decisions about future investments. We are unable to predict the likely duration and severity of adverse economic conditions in the United States and other countries, but the longer the duration, the greater risks we face in operating our business. We cannot assure you that current economic conditions, worsening economic conditions or prolonged poor economic conditions will not have a significant adverse impact on the demand for our solutions, and consequently on our results of operations and prospects.
The marketability of our products may suffer if wireless telecommunications operators do not deliver acceptable wireless services.
The success of our business depends, in part, on the capacity, affordability, reliability and prevalence of wireless data networks provided by wireless telecommunications operators and on which our products and solutions operate. Currently, various wireless telecommunications operators, either individually or jointly with us, sell our products in connection with the sale of their wireless data services to their customers. Growth in demand for wireless data access may be limited if, for example, wireless telecommunications operators cease or materially curtail operations, fail to offer services that customers consider valuable at acceptable prices, fail to maintain sufficient capacity to meet demand for wireless data access, delay the expansion of their wireless networks and services, fail to offer and maintain reliable wireless network services or fail to market their services effectively.

Changes in practices of insurance companies in the markets in which we provide our solutions could materially and adversely affect demand for products and services.
We depend in part on the practices of insurance companies in some of our markets to support demand for certain of our products and services. For example, in South Africa, which is currently the largest market for our Ctrack products and services, insurance companies either mandate the installation of tracking devices as a prerequisite for providing insurance coverage to owners of certain vehicles, or provide insurance premium discounts to encourage vehicle owners to subscribe to vehicle tracking and mobile asset recovery solutions such as ours. We benefit from this continued practice in the South African and certain other markets of:
accepting mobile asset location technologies such as ours as a preferred security product;
providing premium discounts for using location and recovery products and services such as ours; and
mandating the use of our products and services, or similar products and services, for certain vehicles.
If any of these policies or practices change, revenues from sale of our products and services could decline, which would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Reduction in regulation in certain markets may adversely impact demand for certain of our solutions by reducing the necessity for, or desirability of, our solutions.
Regulatory compliance and reporting is driven by legislation and requirements, which are often subject to change, from regulatory authorities in nearly every jurisdiction globally. For example, in the United States, fleet operators can face numerous complex regulatory requirements, including mandatory Compliance, Safety and Accountability driver safety scoring, hours of service, compliance and fuel tax reporting. The reduction in regulation in certain markets may adversely impact demand for certain of our solutions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
RISKS RELATED TO DEVELOPING, MANUFACTURING AND DELIVERING OUR SOLUTIONS
We currently rely on third parties to manufacture and warehouse many of our products, which exposes us to a number of risks and uncertainties outside our control.
We currently outsource the manufacturing of many of our products to companies including Foxconn and AsiaTelco Technologies Co. In addition, in 2016 we sold portions of our IoT modules business to Telit Wireless Solutions, Inc. (“Telit”), and we now rely on Telit to supply us with modules that are critical to the functionality of some of our telematics hardware devices, including devices sold or deployed by Ctrack. If one of these third-party manufacturers were to experience delays, disruptions, capacity constraints or quality control problems in its manufacturing operations, product shipments to our customers could be delayed or rejected or our customers could consequently elect to change product demand or cancel the underlying subscription or service. These disruptions would negatively impact our revenues, competitive position and reputation. Further, if we are unable to manage successfully our relationship with a manufacturer, the quality and availability of products used in our services and solutions may be harmed. None of our third-party manufacturers is obligated to supply us with a specific quantity of products, except as may be provided in a particular purchase order that we have submitted to, and that has been accepted by, such third-party manufacturer. Our third-party manufacturers could, under some circumstances, decline to accept new purchase orders from us or otherwise reduce their business with us. If a manufacturer stopped manufacturing our products for any reason or reduced manufacturing capacity, we may be unable to replace the lost manufacturing capacity on a timely and comparatively cost effective basis, which would adversely impact our operations. In addition, we generally do not enter into long-term contracts with our manufacturers. As a result, we are subject to price increases due to availability, and subsequent price volatility, in the marketplace of the components and materials needed to manufacture our products. If a third-party manufacturer were to negatively change the product pricing and other terms under which it agrees to manufacture for us and we were unable to locate a suitable alternative manufacturer, our manufacturing costs could increase.
Because we outsource the manufacturing of our products, the cost, quality and availability of third-party manufacturing operations is essential to the successful production and sale of our products. Our reliance on third-party manufacturers exposes us to a number of risks which are outside our control, including:
unexpected increases in manufacturing costs;
interruptions in shipments if a third-party manufacturer is unable to complete production in a timely manner;
inability to control quality of finished products;
inability to control delivery schedules;
inability to control production levels and to meet minimum volume commitments to our customers;
inability to control manufacturing yield;
inability to maintain adequate manufacturing capacity; and
inability to secure adequate volumes of acceptable components at suitable prices or in a timely manner.
Although we promote ethical business practices and our operations personnel periodically visit and monitor the operations of our manufacturers, we do not control the manufacturers or their labor and other legal compliance practices. If our current manufacturers, or any other third-party manufacturer which we may use in the future, violate U.S. or foreign laws or regulations, we may be subjected to extra duties, significant monetary penalties, adverse publicity, the seizure and forfeiture of products that we are attempting to import or the loss of our import privileges. The effects of these factors could render the conduct of our business in a particular country undesirable or impractical and have a negative impact on our operating results.
We are in the process of moving production to one or more new contract manufacturers, which exposes us to a number of risks and uncertainties outside our control.
We have moved and are in the process of moving some production from a contract manufacturer located in mainland China to other contract manufacturers operating in other countries, some of whom we have not contracted with in the past. If our new contract manufacturers are not able to produce our products in the quantities needed prior to the agreed upon delivery

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dates, or are not able to produce our products in conformity with our quality standards, product shipments to our customers could be delayed or rejected. As a result, our customers may elect to cancel orders or place fewer orders in the future. Such delays, rejections, cancellation or reductions in orders would negatively impact our revenues, competitive position and reputation. Further, if we are unable to successfully manage our relationship with a contract manufacturer, the quality and availability of our products may be harmed.
We depend on sole source suppliers for some products used in our services. The availability and sale of those services would be harmed if any of these suppliers is not able to meet our demand and alternative suitable products are not available on acceptable terms, or at all.
Our services use hardware and software from various third parties, some of which are procured from single suppliers. For example, some of our vehicle tracking and fleet management solutions rely on telecommunications modules procured from Telit and our MiFi mobile hotspots rely substantially on chipsets from Qualcomm. From time to time, certain components used in our products or solutions have been in short supply or their anticipated commercial introduction has been delayed or their availability has been interrupted for reasons outside our control. If there is a shortage or interruption in the availability to us of any such components or products and we cannot timely obtain a commercially and technologically suitable substitute or make sufficient and timely design or other modifications to permit the use of such a substitute component or product, we may not be able to timely deliver sufficient quantities of our products or solutions to satisfy our contractual obligations and may not be able to meet particular revenue expectations. Moreover, even if we timely locate a substitute part or product, but its price materially exceeds the original cost of the component or product, then our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Product liability, product replacement, or recall costs could adversely affect our business and financial performance.
We are subject to product liability and product recall claims if any of our products and services are alleged to have resulted in injury to persons or damage to property. If any of our products proves to be defective, we may need to recall and/or redesign them. In addition, any claim or product recall that results in significant adverse publicity may negatively affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations. We maintain product liability insurance, but this insurance may not adequately cover losses related to product liability claims brought against us. We may also be a defendant in class action litigation, for which no insurance is available. Product liability insurance could become more expensive and difficult to maintain and may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In addition, we do not maintain any product recall insurance, so any product recall we are required to initiate could have a significant impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
We rely on third-party software and other intellectual property to develop and provide our solutions and significant increases in licensing costs or defects in third-party software could harm our business.
We rely on software and other intellectual property licensed from third parties to develop and offer our solutions. In addition, we may need to obtain future licenses from third parties to use software or other intellectual property associated with our solutions. We cannot assure you that these licenses will be available to us on acceptable terms, without significant price increases or at all. Any loss of the right to use any such software or other intellectual property required for the development and maintenance of our solutions could result in delays in the provision of our solutions until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available from others, is identified, obtained, and integrated, which could harm our business. Any errors or defects in third-party software could result in errors or a failure of our solutions, which could harm our business.
Our solutions integrate with third-party technologies and if our solutions become incompatible with these technologies, our solutions would lose functionality and our customer acquisition and retention could be adversely affected.
Our solutions integrate with third-party software and devices to allow our solutions to perform key functions. Errors, viruses or bugs may be present in third-party software that our customers use in conjunction with our solutions. Changes to third-party software that our customers use in conjunction with our solutions could also render our solutions inoperable. Customers may conclude that our software is the cause of these errors, bugs or viruses and terminate their subscriptions. The inability to easily integrate with, or any defects in, any third-party software could result in increased costs, or in delays in software releases or updates to our products until such issues have been resolved, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and future prospects and could damage our reputation.
Our software may contain undetected errors, defects or other software problems, and if we fail to correct any defect or other software problems we could lose customers or incur significant costs, which could result in damage to our reputation or harm to our operating results.
Although we warrant that our software will be free of defects for various periods of time, our software platform and its underlying infrastructure are inherently complex and may contain material defects or errors. We must update our solutions quickly to keep pace with the rapidly changing market and the third-party software and devices with which our solutions

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integrate. We have from time to time found defects in our software and may discover additional defects in the future, particularly as we continue to migrate our product offerings to new platforms or use new devices in connection with our services and solutions. We may not be able to detect and correct defects or errors before customers begin to use our platform or its applications. Consequently, our solutions could contain undetected errors or defects, especially when first introduced or when new versions are released or when new hardware or software is integrated into our solutions. We implement bug fixes and upgrades as part of our regular system maintenance, which may lead to system downtime. Even if we are able to implement the bug fixes and upgrades in a timely manner, any history of defects or inaccuracies in the performance of our software for our customers could result in damage to our reputation or harm to our operating results.
Our solutions rely on cellular and GPS networks and any disruption, failure or increase in costs could impede our profitability and harm our financial results.
Two critical links in our current solutions are between in-vehicle devices and GPS satellites and between in-vehicle devices or customer premise equipment and cellular networks, which allow us to obtain location data and transmit it to our system. Increases in the fees charged by cellular carriers for data transmission or changes in the cellular networks, such as a cellular carrier discontinuing support of the network currently used by our in-vehicle devices or customer premise equipment, requiring retrofitting of our devices could increase our costs and impact our profitability. In addition, technologies that rely on GPS depend on the use of radio frequency bands and any modification of the permitted uses of these bands may adversely affect the functionality of GPS and, in turn, our solutions.
The mobile carriers can and will discontinue radio frequency technologies as they become obsolete. If we are unable to design our solutions into new technologies such as 4G, 4G LTE and 5G or 5G NR, our future prospects and revenues could be limited.
Any significant disruption in service on our websites or in our computer systems could damage our reputation and result in a loss of customers, which would harm our business and operating results.
Our brand, reputation, and ability to attract, retain, and serve our customers are dependent upon the reliable performance of our services and our customers’ ability to access our solutions at all times. Our customers rely on our solutions to make operating decisions related to their businesses, as well as to measure, store and analyze valuable data regarding their businesses. Our solutions are vulnerable to interruption and our data centers are vulnerable to damage or interruption from human error, intentional bad acts, computer viruses or hackers, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires, war, terrorist attacks, power losses, hardware failures, systems failures, telecommunications failures, and similar events, any of which could limit our customers’ ability to access our solutions. Prolonged delays or unforeseen difficulties in connection with adding capacity or upgrading our network architecture may cause our service quality to suffer. Any event that significantly disrupts our service or exposes our data to misuse could damage our reputation and harm our business and operating results, including reducing our revenue, causing us to issue credits to customers, subjecting us to potential liability, harming our churn rates, or increasing our cost of acquiring new customers.
We host our solutions and serve our South African customers from our network servers, which are located at our data center facilities in South Africa. In other geographies, we host our solutions and serve our customers from network servers hosted by third parties, which are located at data center facilities in the United States, Europe and Australia. If these data centers are unable to keep up with our growing needs for capacity, this could have an adverse effect on our business. Our disaster recovery systems are located at third-party hosting facilities, except in South Africa where we manage our own disaster recovery system at an offsite facility. While we are increasing redundancy, our systems have not been tested under actual disaster conditions and may not have sufficient capacity to recover all data and services in the event of an outage. In the event of a disaster in which our disaster recovery systems are irreparably damaged or destroyed, we would experience interruptions in access to our products. Any changes in third-party service levels at our data centers or any errors, defects, disruptions, or other performance problems with our solutions could harm our reputation and may damage our data. Interruptions in our services might reduce our revenue, cause us to issue credits or refunds to customers, subject us to potential liability, or harm our churn rates.
We provide minimum service level commitments to certain of our customers, and our failure to meet them could require us to issue credits for future subscriptions or pay penalties, which could harm our results of operations.
Certain of our customer agreements currently, and may in the future, provide minimum service level commitments regarding items such as system availability, functionality or performance. If we are unable to meet the stated service level commitments for these customers or suffer extended periods of service unavailability, we are or may be contractually obligated to provide these customers with credits for future subscriptions, provide services at no cost, or pay other penalties which could adversely impact our revenue. We do not currently have any reserves on our balance sheet for these commitments.

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Failure to maintain the security of our information and technology networks, including information relating to our customers and employees, could adversely affect us. Furthermore, if security breaches in connection with the delivery of our services allow unauthorized third parties to obtain control or access of our asset management, fleet management and telemetry solutions, our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed.
We are dependent on information technology networks and systems, including the Internet, to process, transmit and store electronic information and, in the normal course of our business, we collect and retain certain information pertaining to our customers and employees. The protection of customer and employee data is critical to us. We devote significant resources to addressing security vulnerabilities in our products and information technology systems, however, the security measures put in place by us cannot provide absolute security, and our information technology infrastructure may be vulnerable to criminal cyber-attacks or data security incidents due to employee or customer error, malfeasance, or other vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity attacks are increasingly sophisticated, change frequently, and often go undetected until after an attack has been launched. We may fail to identify these new and complex methods of attack, or fail to invest sufficient resources in security measures. We cannot be certain that advances in cyber-capabilities or other developments will not compromise or breach the technology protecting the networks that access our services.
If a security breach occurs, our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed. We may also be subject to costly notification and remediation requirements if we, or a third party, determines that we have been the subject of a data breach involving personal information of individuals. Though it is difficult to determine what harm may directly result from any specific interruption or security breach, any failure or perceived failure to maintain performance, reliability, security and availability of systems or the actual or potential theft, loss, fraudulent use or misuse of our products or the personally identifiable data of a customer or employee, could result in harm to our reputation or brand, which could lead some customers to seek to stop using certain of our services, reduce or delay future purchases of our services, use competing services, or materially and adversely affect the overall market perception of the security and reliability of our services.
RISKS RELATED TO INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS
Due to the global nature of our operations, we are subject to political and economic risks of doing business internationally.
Our largest subsidiary, Ctrack, is headquartered in South Africa and conducts business in over 50 countries. Most of our employees are located outside the United States, and international revenue represents a significant percentage of our worldwide revenue. The risks inherent in global operations include:
difficulty managing sales, product development and logistics and support across continents;
limitations on ownership or participation in local enterprises;
lack of familiarity with, and unexpected changes in, foreign laws, regulations and legal standards, including employment laws, product liability laws, privacy laws and environmental laws, which may vary widely across the countries in which we operate;
increased expense to comply with U.S. laws that apply to foreign operations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”) and Office of Foreign Assets Control regulations;
compliance with, and potentially adverse tax consequences of, foreign tax regimes;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates, currency exchange controls, price controls and limitations on repatriation of earnings;
transportation delays and interruptions;
local labor laws;
local economic conditions;
political, social and economic instability and disruptions;
acts of terrorism and other security concerns;
government embargoes or foreign trade restrictions such as tariffs, duties, taxes or other controls;
import and export controls;
increased product development costs due to differences among countries’ safety regulations and radio frequency allocation schemes and standards;
longer warranty terms and broader product warranty requirements;
increased expense related to localization of products and development of foreign language marketing and sales materials;
longer sales cycles;

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longer accounts receivable payment cycles and difficulty in collecting accounts receivable in foreign countries;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
workforce reorganizations in various locations;
restrictive employment regulations;
difficulties in staffing and managing multi-national operations;
difficulties and increased expense in implementing corporate policies and controls;
international intellectual property laws, which may be more restrictive or offer lower levels of protection than U.S. law;
compliance with differing and changing local laws and regulations in multiple international locations, including regional data privacy laws, as well as compliance with U.S. laws and regulations where applicable in these international locations; and
limitations on our ability to enforce legal rights and remedies.
If we are unable to successfully manage these and other risks associated with managing and expanding our international business, the risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Weakness or deterioration in global economic conditions or jurisdictions where we have significant foreign operations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
As a result of weak or deteriorating economic conditions globally, or in certain jurisdictions where we have significant foreign operations such as South Africa, we could experience lower demand for our products, which could adversely impact our results of operations. Additionally, there could be a number of related effects on our business resulting from weak economic conditions, including the insolvency of one or more of our suppliers resulting in product launch or product delivery delays, customer insolvencies resulting in that customer’s inability to order products from us or pay for already delivered products, and reduced demand by the ultimate end-users of our products. Although we continue to monitor market conditions, we cannot predict future market conditions or their impact on demand for our products.
Weakness or deterioration in global political conditions where we have significant business interests could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We sell to customers throughout the world and we currently have operations and activities in South Africa, Europe, China and other Asian countries. The political risks associated with the Company’s global operations include:
economic and commercial instability risks, corruption and changes in local government laws, regulations and policies, such as those related to tariffs and trade barriers, taxation, exchange controls, employment regulations and repatriation of earnings;
political instability, civil unrest, expropriation, nationalization of properties by a government, imposition of sanctions and changes to import or export regulations and fees;
conflicts, territorial disputes, war or terrorist activities;
major public health issues, such as an outbreak of a pandemic or epidemic, which could cause disruptions in our operations or workforce, or the supply of products; and
difficulties enforcing intellectual property and contractual rights in certain jurisdictions.
The impact of any of the foregoing factors is difficult to predict, and any one or more of them could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. Existing insurance arrangements may not provide protection for the costs that may arise from such events.
Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, especially the South African Rand against the U.S. Dollar, could adversely affect our results of operations.
A significant portion of our revenues are generated from sales agreements denominated in foreign currencies, and we expect to enter into additional such agreements as we expand our international customer base. In addition, we employ a significant number of employees outside the United States, and the associated employment and facilities costs are denominated in foreign currencies. As a result, we are exposed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. We have particularly large exposure in South Africa where our Ctrack subsidiary is headquartered and the costs of operating in South Africa are subject to the effects of exchange fluctuations of the South African Rand against the U.S. Dollar. Fluctuations in the value of foreign currencies, particularly the South African Rand against the U.S. Dollar, will create greater uncertainty in our revenues and can significantly and adversely affect our operating results.

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We do not currently employ any vehicles as a hedge against currency fluctuations, however, we may decide to use hedging vehicles in the future. At times, we may attempt to manage the risk associated with currency changes, in part, by minimizing the effects of volatility on cash flows by identifying forecasted transactions exposed to these risks, or we may decide to use hedging vehicles such as foreign exchange forward contracts. Since there is a high correlation between the hedging instruments and the underlying exposures, the gains and losses on these underlying exposures are generally offset by reciprocal changes in the value of the hedging instruments. We may use derivative financial instruments as risk management tools and not for trading or speculative purposes. Nevertheless, there can be no assurance that we will not incur foreign currency losses or that foreign exchange forward contracts we may enter into to reduce the risk of such losses will be successful.
Unionization efforts in certain countries in which we operate could materially increase our costs or limit our flexibility.
Certain of our employees and contractors in South Africa are represented by labor unions or work under collective bargaining or similar agreements, which are subject to periodic renegotiation. Efforts may also be made from time to time to unionize other portions of our global workforce. In addition, we may be subject to strikes or work stoppages and other labor disruptions in the future. Additional unionization efforts, new or renegotiated collective bargaining agreements or work stoppages could materially increase our costs, reduce our net revenues or limit our operational flexibility.
RISKS RELATED TO REGULATIONS, TAXATION AND ACCOUNTING MATTERS
Our substantial international operations may increase our exposure to potential liability under anti-corruption, trade protection, tax and other laws and regulations.
The FCPA and other anti-corruption laws and regulations (“Anti-Corruption Laws”) prohibit corrupt payments by our employees, vendors or agents. From time to time, we may receive inquiries from authorities in the United States and elsewhere about our business activities outside of the United States and our compliance with Anti-Corruption Laws. While we devote substantial resources to our global compliance programs and have implemented policies, training and internal controls designed to reduce the risk of corrupt payments, our employees, vendors or agents may violate our policies.
Our failure to comply with Anti-Corruption Laws could result in significant fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business, and damage to our reputation. Operations outside of the United States may be affected by changes in trade protection laws, policies and measures, and other regulatory requirements affecting trade and investment.
As a result of our international operations we are subject to foreign tax regulations. Such regulations may not be clear, not consistently applied and subject to sudden change, particularly with regard to international transfer pricing. Our earnings could be reduced by the uncertain and changing nature of such tax regulations.
Our software contains encryption technologies, certain types of which are subject to U.S. and foreign export control regulations and, in some foreign countries, restrictions on importation and/or use. Any failure on our part to comply with encryption or other applicable export control requirements could result in financial penalties or other sanctions under the U.S. or foreign export regulations, including restrictions on future export activities, which could harm our business and operating results. Regulatory restrictions could impair our access to technologies needed to improve our solutions and may also limit or reduce the demand for our solutions outside of the United States.
If we do not achieve applicable black economic empowerment objectives in our South African businesses, we risk not being able to renew certain of our existing contracts which service South African government and quasi-governmental customers, as well as not being awarded future corporate and governmental contracts which would result in the loss of revenue.
The South African government, through the Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act, No. 53 of 2003, and the codes of good practice and industry charters published pursuant thereto (collectively “BBBEE”), has established a legislative framework for the promotion of broad-based black economic empowerment. Achievement of BBBEE objectives is measured by a scorecard which establishes a weighting for the various components of BBBEE. BBBEE objectives are pursued in significant part by requiring parties who contract with corporate, governmental or quasi-governmental entities in South Africa to achieve BBBEE compliance through satisfaction of an applicable scorecard. Parties improve their BBBEE score when contracting with businesses that have earned good BBBEE ratings in relation to their scorecards (this includes black-owned businesses).
Ctrack has material contracts with governmental entities that require it to maintain minimum BBBEE rating levels as measured under the BBBEE scorecard. Failure to achieve applicable BBBEE objectives could jeopardize our ability to maintain existing business or to secure future business from these and other corporate, governmental or quasi-governmental customers that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We are required to comply with South African labor laws with respect to certain of our employees and face the risk of disruption from labor disputes in South Africa, which could result in additional operating costs.
South African laws relating to labor that regulate work time, provide for mandatory compensation in the event of termination of employment for operational reasons, and impose monetary penalties for non-compliance with administrative and reporting requirements in respect of affirmative action policies, could result in additional operating costs. In addition, future changes to South African legislation and regulations relating to labor may increase our costs or alter our relationship with our employees and result in labor disruptions. Resulting disruptions could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Evolving regulations and changes in applicable laws relating to data privacy may increase our expenditures related to compliance efforts or otherwise limit the solutions we can offer, which may harm our business and adversely affect our financial condition.
Our products and solutions enable us to collect, manage and store a wide range of data related to vehicle tracking and fleet management such as vehicle location and fuel usage, speed and mileage. Some of the data we collect or use in our business is subject to data privacy laws, which are complex and increase our cost of doing business. The U.S. federal government and various state governments have adopted or proposed limitations on the collection, distribution and use of personal information. Many foreign jurisdictions, including the European Union and the United Kingdom, have adopted legislation (including directives or regulations) that increase or change the requirements governing data collection and storage in these jurisdictions. Ctrack markets its products in over 50 countries, and accordingly, we are subject to many different, and potentially conflicting, privacy laws. If our privacy or data security measures fail to comply, or are perceived to fail to comply, with current or future laws and regulations, we may be subject to litigation, regulatory investigations or other liabilities.
Moreover, if future laws and regulations limit our ability to use and share this data or our ability to store, process and share data with our clients over the Internet, demand for our solutions could decrease and our costs could increase. We might also have to limit the manner in which we collect information, the types of information that we collect, or the solutions we offer. Any of these could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting, we may not be able to report our financial results timely and accurately, which could adversely affect investor confidence in the Company, and in turn, our results of operations and our stock price.
Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and operate successfully as a public company. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires that companies evaluate and report on their systems of internal control over financial reporting. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm must report on its evaluation of those controls.
Any failure to maintain effective internal controls could cause a delay in compliance with our reporting obligations, SEC rules and regulations or Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which could subject us to a variety of administrative sanctions, including, but not limited to, SEC enforcement action, ineligibility for short form registration, the suspension or delisting of our common stock from the stock exchange on which it is listed and the inability of registered broker-dealers to make a market in our common stock, which could adversely affect our business and the trading price of our common stock.
If the accounting estimates we make, and the assumptions on which we rely, in preparing our financial statements prove inaccurate, our actual results may be adversely affected.
Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments about, among other things, allowance for doubtful accounts receivable, provision for excess and obsolete inventory, valuation of intangible and long-lived assets, valuation of goodwill, valuation of debt obligations, royalty costs, tariffs, accruals relating to litigation and restructuring, provision for warranty costs, income taxes, share-based compensation expense and the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. These estimates and judgments affect the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, the amounts of charges accrued by us, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances and at the time they are made. If our estimates or the assumptions underlying them are not correct, actual results may differ materially from our estimates and we may need to, among other things, accrue additional charges that could adversely affect our results of operations, which in turn could adversely affect our stock price. In addition, new accounting pronouncements and interpretations of accounting pronouncements have occurred and may occur in the future that could adversely affect our reported financial results.

27



Any changes to the accounting systems or new accounting system implementations may be ineffective or cause delays in our ability to provide timely financial results
A change in the Company’s accounting systems or new accounting system implementations could cause trial balance to drift out of balance or hinder the reconciliation of items which are time consuming to diagnose, impacting our ability to provide timely audited and unaudited financial results. Any such change could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls and could cause a delay in compliance with our reporting obligations, which could adversely affect our business and the trading price of our common stock.
Any changes to existing accounting pronouncements or taxation rules or practices may cause adverse fluctuations in our reported results of operations or affect how we conduct our business.
A change in accounting pronouncements or taxation rules or practices can have a significant effect on our reported results and may affect our reporting of transactions completed before the change is effective. New accounting pronouncements, taxation rules and varying interpretations of accounting pronouncements or taxation rules have occurred in the past and may occur in the future. The change to existing rules, future changes, if any, or the need for us to modify a current tax position may adversely affect our reported financial results or the way we conduct our business.
Enhanced United States fiscal, tax and trade restrictions and executive and legislative actions could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
There is currently significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and various other countries, most significantly China, with respect to trade policies, treaties, tariffs and taxes. The current U.S. administration has called for substantial changes to U.S. foreign trade policy with respect to China and other countries, including significant new and increased tariffs on goods imported into the United States. In 2018, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (the “USTR”) enacted tariffs on imports into the U.S. from China, including communications equipment products and components manufactured and imported from China. The tariff became effective in September 2018, with an initial rate of 10% and was scheduled to increase from 10% to 25% on January 1, 2019. The scheduled increase was delayed until March 2, 2019, however trade negotiations between the U.S. and China continue and the scheduled increase has been further delayed indefinitely. Our business may also be affected by tariffs set by countries into which we sell our products, whether as a response to U.S. foreign trade policy or otherwise. In addition, changes in international trade agreements, regulations, restrictions and tariffs, including new tariffs, may increase our operating costs, reduce our margins and make it more difficult for us to compete in the U.S. and overseas markets, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
We have taken actions to mitigate the impact of such tariffs, however, there is no assurance that all such efforts will be successful. These actions include moving our contract manufacturing out of mainland China and working directly with U.S. Customs and Border Protection (“CBP”) to address the harmonized tariff codes used for our products. The majority of the move out of mainland China has been completed, and we expect the balance to be completed by the end of the first quarter 2019. The inability to mitigate the impact of the recently enacted tariffs, including the inability to obtain favorable results from our efforts with CBP, or any similar future increases in tariffs would increase our costs, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
In some cases, the U.S. government’s imposition of trade restrictions involving products sold by certain Chinese manufacturers has caused U.S. wireless carriers to divert business from international providers to the Company, and accordingly, the Company has invested resources in satisfying the needs of such customers. If the U.S. government were to remove or reduce such trade restrictions, it could cause such carriers to reduce their business with the Company and we may be unable to recoup or attain a return on such investments.
RISKS RELATED TO OWNING OUR SECURITIES
Our share price has been highly volatile in the past and could be highly volatile in the future.
The market price of our common stock can be highly volatile due to the risks and uncertainties described in this report, as well as other factors, including: comments by securities analysts; announcements by us or others regarding, among other things, operating results, additions or departures of key personnel, and acquisitions or divestitures; additional equity or debt financing; technological innovations; introductions of new products; litigation; price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market, and particularly with respect to market prices and trading volumes of other high technology stocks; and our failure to meet market expectations.
In addition, the stock market has from time to time experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that were unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility have

28



sometimes subsequently become the subject of securities class action litigation. If litigation were instituted on this basis, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources.
Our future capital needs are uncertain and we may need to raise additional funds in the future. We may not be able to raise such additional funds on acceptable terms or at all.
We may need to raise substantial additional capital in the future to fund our operations, develop and commercialize new products and solutions or acquire companies. If we require additional funds in the future, we may not be able to obtain those funds on acceptable terms, or at all. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience dilution. Debt financing, if available, may involve covenants restricting our operations or our ability to incur additional debt. Any debt or additional equity financing that we raise may contain terms that are not favorable to us or our stockholders. In addition, restrictions in our existing debt agreements may limit the amount and/or type of indebtedness that we are able to incur.
If we do not have, or are not able to obtain, sufficient funds, we may have to delay development or commercialization of our products and solutions, liquidate some or all of our assets, or delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate some or all of our sales and marketing expansion programs. Any of these actions could harm our operating results.
If financial or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they issue negative or misleading evaluations of our stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. We do not control these analysts or the content and opinions included in their reports. If one or more of the analysts who cover us were to adversely change their recommendation regarding our stock, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, our stock price could decline. If one or more of the analysts who cover us cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Future issuances of our common stock to holders of warrants may materially and adversely affect the price of our common stock and cause dilution to our existing stockholders.
As of December 31, 2018, we had outstanding warrants to purchase 5,815,283 shares of our common stock. These warrants are generally only exercisable on a cash basis, but may be exercised on a cashless basis if and only if a registration statement relating to the issuance of the shares underlying the warrants is not then effective or an exemption from registration is not available for the resale of such shares. Any such net exercise will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders without any corresponding benefit to the Company of a cash payment for the exercise price of such warrant.
Future settlements of any conversion obligations with respect to the Inseego Notes may result in dilution to existing stockholders, lower prevailing market prices for our common stock or require a significant cash outlay.
Prior to December 15, 2021, holders may convert their Inseego Notes only if certain conditions are met. On or after December 15, 2021, until close of business on the business day immediately preceding the maturity date, holders may convert their Inseego Notes at any time. The Inseego Notes are convertible into cash, shares of the Company’s common stock, or a combination thereof, at the election of the Company, and are initially convertible into 22,313,830 shares of the Company’s common stock, based on an initial conversion rate of 212.7660 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of Inseego Notes (which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of $4.70 per share of common stock). The conversion rate is subject to adjustment if certain events occur, but in no event will the conversion rate exceed 387.5968 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of Inseego Notes (which is equivalent to a conversion price of $2.58 per share of common stock). If we elect to settle conversions of the Inseego Notes with common stock, this may cause significant dilution to our existing stockholders. Any sales in the public market of the common stock issued upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. If we do not elect to settle conversion of the Inseego Notes solely with common stock, we would be required to settle a portion, or all, of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity.
Certain provisions in the Inseego Indenture could delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover or takeover attempt of us.
Certain provisions in the Inseego Indenture could make it more difficult or more expensive for a third party to acquire us. For example, if a takeover would constitute a fundamental change (as defined in the Inseego Indenture), holders of the Inseego Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase their Inseego Notes in cash. In addition, if a takeover constitutes a make-whole fundamental change, we may be required to increase the conversion rate for holders who convert their Inseego Notes in connection with such takeover. In either case, and in other cases, our obligations under the Inseego Notes and the Inseego Indenture could increase the cost of acquiring us or otherwise discourage a third party from acquiring us.

29



Ownership of our common stock is concentrated, and as a result, certain stockholders may exercise significant influence over us.
The investors (the “Investors”) who participated in our August 2018 private placement of 12,062,000 shares of common stock and warrants to purchase an additional 4,221,700 shares of common stock currently own approximately 37.8% of the outstanding shares of our common stock. Assuming the conversion of the Inseego Notes and exercise of the warrants also owned by the Investors and their affiliates, the Investors and their affiliates would own approximately 44.0% of the outstanding shares of our common stock. As a result, the Investors have the ability to significantly influence the outcome of any matter submitted for the vote of the holders of our common stock.
The concentration of voting power could exert substantial influence over our business. For example, the concentration of voting power could delay, defer or prevent a change of control, entrench our management and the board of directors or delay or prevent a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us on terms that other security holders may desire. In addition, conflicts of interest could arise in the future between us on the one hand, and either or both of the Investors on the other hand, concerning potential competitive business activities, business opportunities, capital financing, the issuance of additional securities and other matters.
In addition, the Purchase Agreement grants to each of the Investors the right to nominate a director so long as such Investor and its affiliates beneficially own at least 5% of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of the Company, subject to satisfaction of reasonable qualification standards. The Purchase Agreement further provides that, at any time at which either Investor, together with its affiliates, beneficially owns more than 20% of the issued and outstanding common shares of stock of the Company, such Investor shall be entitled to appoint a second director, and the size of our Board of Directors shall not be increased to exceed seven directors. Notwithstanding the fact that all directors will be subject to fiduciary duties to the Company and to applicable law, the interests of the directors designated by the Investors may differ from the interests of our security holders as a whole or of our other directors.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.    Properties
Our principal executive office is located in Alpharetta, Georgia. Our corporate headquarter offices are located in San Diego, California where we lease approximately 21,000 square feet under an arrangement that expires in December 2019 and approximately 12,000 square feet under an arrangement that expires in June 2020. We also currently lease approximately 14,000 square feet in Eugene, Oregon under a lease arrangement that expires in January 2023, and own property in Centurion, South Africa with approximately 28,000 square feet. We further lease space in various geographic locations abroad primarily for sales and support personnel, for research and development, or for temporary facilities. We believe that our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current needs and that we can renew our existing leases or obtain alternative space on terms that would not have a material impact on our financial condition.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
We are engaged in legal actions that arise in the ordinary course of our business. In general, while there can be no assurance, we believe that the ultimate outcome of these legal actions will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
The disclosure in Note 11, Commitments and Contingencies, in the accompanying consolidated financial statements includes a discussion of our legal proceedings and is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
None.

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PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Common Stock Data
Shares of our common stock are currently quoted and traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “INSG” and, prior to November 9, 2016, were quoted on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “MIFI”.
Number of Stockholders of Record
Our outstanding capital stock consists of a single class of common stock. As of March 6, 2019, there were approximately 29 holders of record of our common stock. Because many of the shares of our common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.
Dividends
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on any shares of our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds for use in the operation and development of our business and, therefore, do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination relating to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on a number of factors, including future earnings, capital requirements, financial condition and future prospects and other factors the Board of Directors may deem relevant. In addition, both the Credit Agreement and the Inseego Indenture contain covenants that limit the ability of the Company to pay cash dividends.
During the first quarter of 2018, our Board of Directors authorized and declared a dividend distribution of one preferred stock purchase right (“Right”) under certain circumstances for each share of the Company’s common stock authorized and outstanding on February 2, 2018. Each Right entitles the holder to purchase one one-thousandth of a share of Series D Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a purchase price of $10.00, subject to adjustments. Prior to exercise, the Rights do not give their holders any rights as a stockholder, including any dividend, voting or liquidation rights.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
None, except as previously disclosed in the Company’s Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K.
Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
Not applicable.
Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion of our consolidated financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this report. This report contains certain forward-looking statements relating to future events or our future financial performance. These statements are subject to risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in this report. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on this information which speaks only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we assume no responsibility for updating any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. For a discussion of the important risks related to our business and future operating performance, see the discussion under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and under the caption “Factors Which May Influence Future Results of Operations” below.
Business Overview and Background
Inseego Corp. is a Delaware corporation formed in 2016 as the successor to Novatel Wireless, Inc., a Delaware corporation formed in 1996, resulting from an internal reorganization that was completed in November 2016. Our principal executive office is located at 12600 Deerfield Parkway, Suite 100, Alpharetta, GA 30004, our corporate offices are located at 9605 Scranton Road, Suite 300, San Diego, CA 92121 and our sales and engineering offices are located throughout the world. Inseego’s common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the trading symbol “INSG”.
Overview
Inseego Corp. is a leader in the design and development of mobile (advanced 4G and 5G New Radio (“5G NR”)), Internet of Things (“IoT”) and cloud solutions for large enterprise verticals, service providers and small and medium-sized businesses around the globe. Our product portfolio consists of fixed and mobile device-to-cloud solutions that provide compelling,

31



intelligent, reliable and secure end-to-end IoT services with deep business intelligence. Inseego’s products and solutions power mission critical applications with a “zero unscheduled downtime” mandate, such as 5G fixed wireless access gateway solutions, 4G and 5G mobile broadband, industrial IoT, SD WAN failover management, asset tracking and fleet management services. Our solutions are powered by our key innovations in purpose-built SaaS cloud platforms, IoT and mobile technologies, including a product suite meeting the 5G NR standards.
We have invented and reinvented ways in which the world stays connected, accesses information and derives intelligence from that information. With multiple first-to-market innovations and a strong and growing portfolio of hardware and software innovations for IoT, Inseego has been advancing technology and driving industry transformation for over 30 years. It is this proven expertise, commitment to quality and obsession with innovation and relentless execution that makes us a preferred global partner of service providers, distributors, value-added resellers, system integrators, enterprises and small and medium-sized businesses.
Business Segment Reporting
We do not provide separate segment reporting for our various lines of business. Our Chief Executive Officer, who is also our Chief Operating Decision Maker, evaluates the business as a single entity and reviews financial information and makes business decisions based on the overall results of the business. As such, the Company’s operations constitute a single operating segment and one reportable segment.
Factors Which May Influence Future Results of Operations
Net Revenues. We believe that our future net revenues will be influenced by a number of factors including:
economic environment and related market conditions;
increased competition from other fleet and vehicle telematics solutions, as well as suppliers of emerging devices that contain wireless data access or device management feature;
acceptance of our products by new vertical markets;
growth in the aviation ground vertical;
rate of change to new products;
phase-out of earlier generation wireless technologies (such as 3G);
deployment of 5G infrastructure equipment;
adoption of 5G end point products;
competition in the area of 5G technology;
product pricing; and
changes in technologies.
Our revenues are also significantly dependent upon the availability of materials and components used in our hardware products.
We anticipate introducing additional products during the next twelve months, including SaaS telematics solutions and additional service offerings, industrial IoT hardware and services, and other mobile and fixed wireless devices targeting the emerging 5G market. We continue to develop and maintain strategic relationships with service providers and other wireless industry leaders such as Verizon Wireless, T-Mobile, Sprint, and Qualcomm. Through strategic relationships, we have been able to maintain market penetration by leveraging the resources of our channel partners, including their access to distribution resources, increased sales opportunities and market opportunities.
Cost of Net Revenues. Cost of net revenues includes all costs associated with our contract manufacturers, distribution, fulfillment and repair services, delivery of SaaS services, warranty costs, amortization of intangible assets, royalties, operations overhead, costs associated with cancellation of purchase orders and costs related to outside services. Also included in cost of net revenues are costs related to inventory adjustments, including acquisition-related amortization of the fair value of inventory, as well as any write downs for excess and obsolete inventory and abandoned product lines. Inventory adjustments are impacted primarily by demand for our products, which is influenced by the factors discussed above.
Operating Costs and Expenses. Our operating costs consist of three primary categories: research and development, sales and marketing and general and administrative costs.
Research and development is at the core of our ability to produce innovative, leading-edge products. These expenses consist primarily of engineers and technicians who design and test our highly complex products and the procurement of testing and certification services.

32



Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of our sales force and product-marketing professionals. In order to maintain strong sales relationships, we provide co-marketing, trade show support and product training. We are also engaged in a wide variety of marketing activities, such as awareness and lead generation programs as well as product marketing. Other marketing initiatives include public relations, seminars and co-branding with partners.
General and administrative expenses include primarily corporate functions such as accounting, human resources, legal, administrative support and professional fees. This category also includes the expenses needed to operate as a publicly-traded company, including compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended, SEC filings, stock exchange fees and investor relations expense. Although general and administrative expenses are not directly related to revenue levels, certain expenses such as legal expenses and provisions for bad debts may cause significant volatility in future general and administrative expenses which may, in turn, impact net revenue levels.
We have undertaken certain restructuring activities and cost reduction initiatives in an effort to better align our organizational structure and costs with our strategy. Restructuring charges consist primarily of severance costs incurred in connection with the reduction of our workforce and facility exit-related costs, as well as discontinued operations, if any.
As part of our business strategy, we may review acquisition or divestiture opportunities that we believe would be advantageous or complementary to the development of our business. Given our current cash position and recent losses, any additional acquisitions we make would likely involve issuing stock in order to provide the purchase consideration for the acquisitions. If we make any additional acquisitions, we may incur substantial expenditures in conjunction with the acquisition process and the subsequent assimilation of any acquired business, products, technologies or personnel.

33



Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations expressed as a percentage of net revenues for the periods indicated.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenues:
(as a percent of net revenues)
 
 
IoT & Mobile Solutions
66.9
 %
 
69.7
 %
 
Enterprise SaaS Solutions
33.1

 
30.3

 
Total net revenues
100.0

 
100.0

 
Cost of net revenues:
 
 
 
 
IoT & Mobile Solutions
52.0

 
58.0

 
Enterprise SaaS Solutions
12.9

 
11.4

 
Impairment of abandoned product line, net of recoveries
0.2

 
(0.1
)
 
Total cost of net revenues
65.1

 
69.3

 
Gross profit
34.9

 
30.7

 
Operating costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
Research and development
10.2

 
9.7

 
Sales and marketing
11.4

 
11.4

 
General and administrative
12.5

 
15.7

 
Amortization of purchased intangible assets
1.8

 
1.6

 
Extinguishment of acquisition-related liabilities
(8.5
)
 

 
Restructuring charges, net of recoveries
0.6

 
2.3

 
Total operating costs and expenses
27.9

 
40.8

 
Operating income (loss)
6.9

 
(10.1
)
 
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
Interest expense, net
(10.1
)
 
(8.8
)
 
Other expense, net
(0.4
)
 
(1.9
)
 
Loss before income taxes
(3.6
)
 
(20.8
)
 
Income tax provision
0.4

 
0.1

 
Net loss
(4.0
)
 
(20.9
)
 
Less: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

 

 
Net loss attributable to Inseego Corp.
(4.0
)%
 
(20.9
)%

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Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2017
Net revenues. Net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018 were $202.5 million, a decrease of $16.8 million, or 7.7%, compared to the same period in 2017.
The following table summarizes net revenues by our two product categories (dollars in thousands):
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Change
Product Category
 
2018
 
2017
 
$
 
%
IoT & Mobile Solutions
 
$
135,349

 
$
152,851

 
$
(17,502
)
 
(11.5
)%
Enterprise SaaS Solutions
 
67,114

 
66,446

 
668

 
1.0
 %
Total
 
$
202,463

 
$
219,297

 
$
(16,834
)
 
(7.7
)%
IoT & Mobile Solutions. The decrease in IoT & Mobile Solutions net revenues is primarily a result of reduced sales from mobile hotspots and home devices as key customers focus on our upcoming 5G products, partially offset by increased services revenue.
Enterprise SaaS Solutions. The increase in Enterprise SaaS Solutions net revenues is primarily a result of increased subscription revenues.
Cost of net revenues. Cost of net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $131.9 million, or 65.1% of net revenues, compared to $152.0 million, or 69.3% of net revenues, for the same period in 2017.
The following table summarizes cost of net revenues by our two product categories (dollars in thousands):
 
 
Year Ended
December 31,
 
Change
Product Category
 
2018
 
2017
 
$
 
%
IoT & Mobile Solutions
 
$
105,344

 
$
127,293

 
$
(21,949
)
 
(17.2
)%
Enterprise SaaS Solutions
 
26,167

 
24,938

 
1,229

 
4.9
 %
Impairment of abandoned product line, net of recoveries
355

 
(269
)
 
624

 
(232.0
)%
Total
 
$
131,866

 
$
151,962

 
$
(20,096
)
 
(13.2
)%
IoT & Mobile Solutions. The decrease in IoT & Mobile Solutions cost of net revenues is primarily a result of decreased sales along with a lower cost per unit as a result of changing contract manufacturers.
Enterprise SaaS Solutions. The increase in Enterprise SaaS Solutions cost of net revenues is primarily a result of increased sales and product mix.
Impairment of abandoned product line, net of recoveries. The impairment of abandoned product line reflects the additional write down of certain inventory related to product lines which were abandoned during the fourth quarter of 2016, net of recoveries related to the subsequent sale of such abandoned products.
Gross profit. Gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $70.6 million, or a gross margin of 34.9%, compared to $67.3 million, or a gross margin of 30.7%, for the same period in 2017. The increase in gross profit was primarily attributable to the improvement in gross margins as a result of changing contract manufacturers and increased higher-margin services revenue.
Research and development expenses. Research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 were $20.6 million, or 10.2% of net revenues, compared to $21.4 million, or 9.7% of net revenues, for the same period in 2017. The decrease was primarily a result of our cost containment initiatives, partially offset by an increase in test and certification expenses associated with the launch of new products.
Sales and marketing expenses. Sales and marketing expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 were $23.0 million, or 11.4% of net revenues, compared to $25.0 million, or 11.4% of net revenues, for the same period in 2017. The decrease was primarily a result of our cost containment initiatives.
General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 were $25.3 million, or 12.5% of net revenues, compared to $34.4 million, or 15.7% of net revenues, for the same period in 2017. The decrease was primarily a result of our cost containment initiatives, as well as a reduction in our legal expenses primarily resulting from certain legal activities that occurred in 2017 that did not reoccur in 2018.

35



Amortization of purchased intangible assets. The amortization of purchased intangible assets for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $3.6 million and $3.6 million, respectively.
Extinguishment of acquisition-related liabilities. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2018, we recorded a gain of $17.2 million related to the extinguishment of certain acquisition-related liabilities resulting from the Settlement Agreement, as defined below. We did not have an extinguishment of acquisition-related liabilities during the same period in 2017.
Restructuring charges, net of recoveries. Restructuring charges, net of recoveries, for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were $1.2 million and $5.2 million, respectively, and primarily consisted of severance costs incurred in connection with the reduction of our workforce and facility exit related costs.
Interest expense, net. Interest expense, net for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $20.4 million, as compared to $19.3 million for the same period in 2017. The increase in interest expense is primarily a result of the interest expense and amortization of the debt discount and debt issuance costs related to our Term Loan, as discussed below.
Other expense, net. Other expense, net, for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $0.9 million, which primarily related to foreign currency transaction gains and losses, as compared to $4.1 million for the same period in 2017, which primarily consisted of a loss on extinguishment of debt related to the repayment of the Prior Credit Agreement and repurchase of certain of our Inseego Notes, as well as the termination of the Revolver (as defined below).
Income tax provision. Income tax provision for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $0.8 million and $0.2 million, respectively, which primarily related to certain of our profitable entities in foreign jurisdictions.
The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2018 is different than the U.S. statutory rate primarily due to a valuation allowance recorded against additional tax assets generated during the year and certain profitable foreign subsidiaries.
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests. Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $0.1 million, as compared to net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests of $0.1 million for the same period in 2017.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our principal sources of liquidity are our existing cash and cash equivalents and cash generated from operations. As of December 31, 2018, we had cash and cash equivalents of $31.0 million compared with cash and cash equivalents of $21.2 million as of December 31, 2017.
On August 6, 2018, the Company completed a private placement of 12,062,000 shares of common stock and warrants to purchase an additional 4,221,700 shares of common stock, for gross proceeds of $19.7 million in cash (the “Private Placement”). In connection with the Private Placement, the Company incurred issuance costs of approximately $0.5 million.
Previous Credit Agreements
On October 31, 2014, we entered into a five-year senior secured revolving credit facility in the amount of $25.0 million (the “Revolver”) with Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as lender. On November 17, 2015, the Revolver was amended to increase the maximum borrowing capacity to $48.0 million. On March 20, 2017, at our request, the financial covenants with respect to liquidity requirements and EBITDA targets, among other things, were amended in order to enable draw-downs by the Company from time to time. In exchange for such accommodations, the aggregate amount available under the Revolver was decreased from $48.0 million to $10.0 million.
We terminated the Revolver on May 8, 2017, in connection with the execution of a Credit Agreement with Lakestar Semi Inc., a private investment fund managed by Soros Fund Management LLC, dated as of May 8, 2017 (the “Prior Credit Agreement”). The Prior Credit Agreement provided for a $20.0 million secured term loan with a maturity date of May 8, 2018.
On August 23, 2017, upon entering into the Credit Agreement described below, we used a portion of the proceeds of the new Term Loan (as defined below) to repay all outstanding amounts under and terminate the Prior Credit Agreement. There was no early termination fee paid in connection with the termination of the Prior Credit Agreement.
Term Loan
On August 23, 2017, we, and certain of our direct and indirect subsidiaries (the “Guarantors”), entered into a credit agreement (the “Credit Agreement”) with Cantor Fitzgerald Securities, as administrative agent and collateral agent, and certain funds managed by Highbridge Capital Management, LLC, as lenders (the “Lenders”). Pursuant to the Credit Agreement, the

36



Lenders provided us with a term loan in the principal amount of $48.0 million (the “Term Loan”) with a maturity date of August 23, 2020 (the “Maturity Date”). In conjunction with the closing of the Term Loan, we received proceeds of $46.9 million, $35.0 million of which was funded to us in cash on the closing date, net of approximately $1.1 million related to an original issue discount and commitment fee, and the remaining $11.9 million of which was funded through our repurchase and cancellation of approximately $14.9 million of our outstanding Inseego Notes pursuant to the terms of the Note Purchase Agreement (as defined below). Additionally, in conjunction with the closing of the Term Loan, we issued 2,000,000 shares of our common stock to the Lenders with a market value of approximately $2.3 million, accrued an exit fee of approximately $0.6 million and paid issuance costs of approximately $0.5 million.
The Term Loan is secured by a first priority lien on substantially all of the assets of the Company and the Guarantors, including equity interests in certain of our direct and indirect subsidiaries, in each case subject to certain customary exceptions and permitted liens. The Credit Agreement includes customary representations and warranties, a material adverse change clause, as well as customary reporting and financial covenants.
The Term Loan bears interest at a rate per annum equal to the three-month LIBOR, but in no event less than 1.00%, plus 7.625%. Interest on the Term Loan is payable on the last business day of each calendar month and on the Maturity Date. Principal on the Term Loan is payable on the Maturity Date.
As required by the terms of the Credit Agreement, during the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company repaid $0.5 million of principal on the Term Loan in connection with the Settlement Agreement (as defined below).
Convertible Senior Notes
On June 10, 2015, Novatel Wireless issued $120.0 million of 5.50% convertible senior notes due 2020 (the “Novatel Wireless Notes”) which are governed by the terms of an indenture, dated June 10, 2015, between Novatel Wireless, as issuer, Inseego and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee, as amended by certain supplemental indentures. The Novatel Wireless Notes are senior unsecured obligations of Novatel Wireless and bear interest at a rate of 5.50% per year, payable semi-annually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year, beginning on December 15, 2015. The Novatel Wireless Notes will mature on June 15, 2020, unless earlier repurchased or converted. The Novatel Wireless Notes will be convertible into cash, shares of our common stock, or a combination thereof, at our election, at an initial conversion price of $5.00 per share of our common stock.
On January 9, 2017, in connection with the settlement of an exchange offer and consent solicitation with respect to the Novatel Wireless Notes, the Company issued approximately $119.8 million aggregate principal amount of the 5.50% convertible senior notes due 2022 (the “Inseego Notes” and collectively with the Novatel Wireless Notes, the “Convertible Notes”). The Inseego Notes were issued in exchange for approximately $119.8 million aggregate principal amount of outstanding Novatel Wireless Notes that were validly tendered and accepted for exchange and subsequently canceled. The Inseego Notes are governed by the terms of an indenture, dated January 9, 2017 (the “Inseego Indenture”), between the Company, as issuer, and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee. The Inseego Notes are senior unsecured obligations of the Company and bear interest at a rate of 5.50% per year, payable semi-annually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year, beginning on June 15, 2017. The Inseego Notes permit the Company to have a senior credit facility up to a maximum amount of $48.0 million.
The exchange of the Novatel Wireless Notes for the Inseego Notes was treated as a debt modification in accordance with applicable Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) guidance and the Company recognized $3.6 million as an additional component of debt discount and additional paid-in capital attributed to the increase in the fair value of the embedded conversion feature of the Inseego Notes before and after modification.
The Inseego Notes will mature on June 15, 2022, unless earlier converted, redeemed or repurchased. The Inseego Notes will be convertible into cash, shares of our common stock, or a combination thereof, at our election, at an initial conversion price of $4.70 per share of our common stock.
Note Purchase Agreement
On August 23, 2017, in connection with the Credit Agreement described above, we entered into a Note Purchase Agreement (the “Note Purchase Agreement”) with the Lenders pursuant to which we repurchased approximately $14.9 million of outstanding Inseego Notes from such Lenders in exchange for $11.9 million deemed to have been loaned to us pursuant to the Credit Agreement and the accrued and unpaid interest on such notes.

37



As of the filing date of this report, the following aggregate principal amounts remain outstanding (in thousands):
Inseego Notes
$
104,875

Novatel Wireless Notes
250

Total
$
105,125

Settlement Agreement
Pursuant to the amended merger agreement with respect to our acquisition of R.E.R. Enterprises, Inc. (“RER”) and its wholly owned subsidiary and principal operating asset, Feeney Wireless, LLC (which has been renamed Inseego North America, LLC), the Company previously agreed to pay a total of $15.0 million in deferred purchase price in five cash installments over a four-year period, beginning in March 2016. The Company also agreed to provide earn-out consideration to the former stockholders of RER in the form of $6.1 million in cash over a four-year period, beginning in March 2016, and issuance of up to 2,920,000 shares of the Company’s common stock in three equal annual installments, beginning in March 2016, contingent upon retention of certain key personnel of RER.
On May 11, 2017, the Company initiated a lawsuit against the former stockholders of RER in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware seeking recovery of damages for civil conspiracy, fraud in the inducement, unjust enrichment and breach of fiduciary duty. On January 16, 2018, the former stockholders of RER filed an answer and counterclaim in the matter seeking recovery of certain deferred and earn-out payments allegedly owed to them by the Company in connection with the Company’s acquisition of RER. On July 26, 2018, the Company and the former stockholders of RER entered into a mutual general release and settlement agreement (the “Settlement Agreement”) pursuant to which the parties agreed to release all claims against each other and the Company agreed to (i) pay the former stockholders of RER $1.0 million in cash by August 17, 2018, (ii) immediately instruct its transfer agent to permit the transfer or sale of 973,333 shares of the Company’s common stock that the Company had issued to the former stockholders of RER in March 2017,(iii) immediately issue 500,000 shares of the Company’s common stock to the former stockholders of RER, (iv) within 12 months following the execution of the Settlement Agreement, deliver to the former stockholders of RER an additional $1.0 million in cash, common stock, or a combination thereof, at the Company’s option, (v) within 24 months following the execution of the Settlement Agreement, deliver to the former stockholders of RER an additional $1.0 million in cash, common stock, or a combination thereof, at the Company’s option and (vi) file one or more registration statements with respect to the resale of the shares of the Company’s common stock issued to the former stockholders of RER pursuant to the Settlement Agreement. The Company’s remaining liability under the Settlement Agreement at December 31, 2018 consists of approximately $1.0 million in current liabilities and $1.0 million in long-term liabilities.
Rights Agreement
On January 22, 2018, the Company entered into the Rights Agreement and issued a Right to each of the stockholders of record of each share of the Company’s common stock outstanding on February 2, 2018. Each Right entitles the registered holder, under certain circumstances, to purchase from the Company one one-thousandth of a share of Series D Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Preferred Shares”), of the Company, at a price of $10.00 per one one-thousandth of a Preferred Share represented by a Right, subject to adjustment. The description and terms of the Rights are set forth in the Rights Agreement.
The Rights are not exercisable until the Distribution Date (as defined in the Rights Agreement). The Rights will expire on the earlier of (i) the close of business on January 22, 2021, (ii) the time at which the Rights are redeemed and (iii) the time at which the Rights are exchanged.
Until a Right is exercised, the holder thereof, as such, will have no rights as a stockholder of the Company, including, without limitation, the right to vote or to receive dividends.
DigiCore Secured Banking Facility
DigiCore has a secured banking facility with Absa, which had a maximum borrowing capacity of $1.0 million at December 31, 2018. The facility bears interest at the South Africa prime interest rate less 0.10% (10.15% at December 31, 2018) and is subject to renewal annually. At December 31, 2018, $1.0 million remained outstanding under this facility.
DigiCore Secured Overdraft Facility
DigiCore has a secured overdraft facility with Grindrod Bank in South Africa, which had a maximum borrowing capacity of $0.6 million at December 31, 2018. The facility bears interest at the South Africa prime interest rate plus 1.00% (11.25% at December 31, 2018), requires monthly interest and, in certain instances, minimum principal payments. The facility is subject to renewal annually. At December 31, 2018, $0.4 million remained outstanding under this facility.

38



Historical Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our consolidated statements of cash flows for the periods indicated (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
Net cash used in operating activities
$
(1,765
)
 
$
(14,576
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(4,234
)
 
(4,375
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
17,667

 
30,366

Effect of exchange rates on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
(1,851
)
 
(50
)
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
9,817

 
11,365

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period
21,259

 
9,894

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period
$
31,076

 
$
21,259

Operating activities. Net cash used in operating activities was $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $14.6 million for the same period in 2017. Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 was primarily attributable to the net losses incurred during the period, excluding the non-cash gain on extinguishment of acquisition-related liabilities and net cash used in working capital, partially offset by non-cash charges for depreciation and amortization, including the amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs, provision for excess and obsolete inventory and share-based compensation expense. Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 was primarily attributable to the net losses incurred during the period, partially offset by non-cash charges for depreciation and amortization, including the amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs, loss on extinguishment of debt and share-based compensation expense.
Investing activities. Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2018 was $4.2 million compared to $4.4 million used in investing activities for the same period in 2017. Cash used in investing activities during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was primarily attributable to the purchases of property, plant and equipment and the capitalization of certain costs related to the development of software to be sold in our solutions.
Financing activities. Net cash provided by financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2018 was $17.7 million, compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $30.4 million for the same period in 2017. Net cash provided by financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2018 was primarily attributable to the net proceeds received from our Private Placement and proceeds received from stock option exercises and purchases made under the employee stock purchase plan, partially offset by net repayments of DigiCore bank and overdraft facilities, principal payments under capital lease obligations and the Term Loan and taxes paid on vested restricted stock units. Net cash provided by financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2017 was primarily attributable to the net proceeds from the Term Loan, partially offset by the repurchase of certain Inseego Notes and payment of issuance costs related to the Term Loan and Prior Credit Agreement.
Other Liquidity Needs
As of December 31, 2018, we had available cash and cash equivalents totaling $31.0 million and working capital of $30.7 million.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we continued certain restructuring initiatives aimed at significantly reducing our cost of revenues and operating expenses in an effort to increase operating cash flows to eventually be sufficient to offset debt service costs and cash flows from investing activities. Our ability to transition to more profitable operations and generating positive cash flow is dependent upon achieving a level of revenue adequate to support our evolving cost structure. If events or circumstances occur such that we do not meet our operating plan as expected, we may be required to reduce planned research and development activities, incur additional restructuring charges or reduce other operating expenses which could have an adverse impact on our ability to achieve our intended business objectives. We believe that our cash and cash equivalents, together with anticipated cash flows from operations, will be sufficient to meet our working capital needs for the next twelve months following the filing date of this report.
Our liquidity could be impaired if there is any interruption in our business operations, a material failure to satisfy our contractual commitments or a failure to generate revenue from new or existing products.
We may decide to raise additional funds to accelerate development of new and existing services and products, to respond to competitive pressures or to acquire complementary products, businesses or technologies. There can be no assurance that any required or desired additional financing will be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. In addition, in order to obtain

39



additional borrowings, we must comply with certain requirements under the Credit Agreement. If additional funds are raised by the issuance of equity securities, our stockholders could experience dilution of their ownership interests and securities issued may have rights senior to those of the holders of our common stock. If additional funds are raised by the issuance of debt securities, we may be subject to certain limitations on our operations.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Revenue Recognition
Sources of Revenue
The Company generates revenue from a broad range of product sales including intelligent wireless hardware products for the worldwide mobile communications and industrial IoT markets. The Company’s products principally include intelligent mobile hotspots, wireless routers for IoT applications, USB modems, integrated telematics and mobile tracking hardware devices, which are supported by applications software and cloud services designed to enable customers to easily analyze data insights and configure and manage their hardware. 
The Company classifies its revenues from the sale of its products and services into two distinct groupings, specifically IoT & Mobile Solutions and Enterprise SaaS Solutions. Both IoT & Mobile Solutions and Enterprise SaaS Solutions revenues include any hardware and software required for the respective solution.
Net revenues by product grouping for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were as follows (in thousands):
 
Year Ended
December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
IoT & Mobile Solutions
$
135,349

 
$
152,851

Enterprise SaaS Solutions
67,114

 
66,446

Total
$
202,463

 
$
219,297

Net revenues by geographic region based on shipping destination for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were as follows (in thousands):
 
Year Ended
December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
United States and Canada
$
139,246

 
$
156,661

South Africa
38,608

 
39,182

Other
24,609

 
23,454

Total
$
202,463

 
$
219,297

IoT & Mobile Solutions. The IoT & Mobile Solutions portfolio is comprised of end-to-end edge to cloud solutions including 4G LTE mobile broadband gateways, routers, modems, hotspots, VoLTE based wireless home phones and cloud management software. The solutions are offered under the MiFi brand for consumer and business markets, and under the Skyus brand for industrial IoT markets.
Enterprise SaaS Solutions. The Enterprise SaaS Solutions consist of various subscription offerings to gain access to the Company’s Ctrack telematics platforms, which provide fleet vehicle, aviation ground vehicle and asset tracking and performance information, and other telematics applications, and Device Management Solutions.

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Contracts with Customers
The Company adopted Accounting Standards Update 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) (as amended, “ASC 606”), effective January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not substantially completed as of January 1, 2018. ASC 606 provides guidance on recognizing revenue, including a five-step model to determine when revenue recognition is appropriate. The standard requires that an entity recognize revenue to depict the transfer of control of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Revenues for 2018 are reported under ASC 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported under ASC 605, Revenue Recognition.
The Company routinely enters into a variety of agreements with customers, including quality agreements, pricing agreements and master supply agreements which outline the general commercial terms and conditions under which the Company does business with a specific customer, including shipping terms and pricing for the products and services that the Company offers. The Company also sells to some customers solely based on purchase orders. The Company has concluded for the vast majority of its revenues, that its contracts with customers are either a purchase order or the combination of a purchase order with a master supply agreement.
The Company determines revenue recognition through the following five steps:
1)
identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer;
2)
identification of the performance obligations in the contract;
3)
determination of the transaction price;
4)
allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
5)
recognition of revenue when, or as, performance obligations are satisfied.
The Company accounts for a contract when it has approval and commitment from both parties, the rights of the parties are identified, payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance and collectability of consideration is probable.
The Company’s performance obligations are established when a customer submits a purchase order notification (in writing, electronically or verbally) for goods and services, and the Company accepts the order. The Company identifies performance obligations as the delivery of the requested product or service in appropriate quantities and to the location specified in the customer’s contract and/or purchase order. The Company generally recognizes revenue upon the satisfaction of these criteria when control of the product or service has been transferred to the customer at which time it has an unconditional right to receive payment. The Company’s prices are fixed and have no history of being affected by contingent events that could impact the transaction price. The Company does not offer price concessions and does not accept payment that is less than the price stated when it accepts the purchase order.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. The Company enters into contracts that may include various combinations of products and services which are generally capable of being distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations.
Hardware. Hardware revenue from the sale of the Company’s IoT & Mobile Solutions devices is recognized when the Company transfers control to the customer, typically at the time when the product is delivered, shipped or installed at which time the title passes to the customer, and there are no further performance obligations with regards to the hardware device.
SaaS and Other Services. SaaS subscription revenue is recognized over time on a ratable basis over the contract term beginning on the date that its service is made available to the customer. Subscription periods range from monthly to multi-year, with the majority of contracts being one to three years. Telematics includes a device which collects and transmits the information from the vehicle or other asset. The Company’s customers have an option to purchase the monitoring device or lease it over the term of the contract. If the customer purchases the hardware device, the Company recognizes the revenue when the Company transfers control of the hardware device to the customer, as discussed above in the hardware revenue recognition disclosure. If the customer chooses to lease the monitoring device, the Company recognizes the revenue for the monitoring device over the term of the contract. The Company records such revenue in accordance with the ASC 840, Leases, as it has determined that they qualify as operating leases because ownership of the device does not transfer to the other party.
Maintenance and support services revenue. Periodically, the Company sells separately-priced warranty contracts that extend beyond the Company’s base warranty period. The separately priced service contracts range from 12 months to

41



36 months. The Company typically receives payment at the inception of the contract and recognizes revenue as earned on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract.
Professional services revenue. From time to time, the Company enters into special engineering design service agreements. Revenues from engineering design services are designed to meet specifications of a particular product, and therefore do not create an asset with an alternative use. The Company recognizes revenue based on the achievement of certain applicable milestones and the amount of payment the Company believes it is entitled to at the time.
With respect to revenue related to third party product sales or other arrangements that involve the services of another party, for which the Company does not control the sale or service and acts as an agent to the transaction, the Company recognizes revenue on a net basis. The portion of the gross amount billed to customers that is remitted by the Company to another party is not reflected as revenue.
Multiple Performance Obligations
The Company’s contracts with customers may include commitments to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. When hardware, software and services are sold in various combinations, judgment is required to determine whether each performance obligation is considered distinct and accounted for separately, or not distinct and accounted for together with other performance obligations. The Company considered the performance obligations in its customer master supply agreements and determined that, for the majority of its revenue, the Company generally satisfies performance obligations at a point in time upon delivery of the product to the customer.
In instances where the software elements included within hardware for various products are considered to be functioning together with non-software elements to provide the tangible product’s essential functionality, these arrangements are accounted for as a single distinct performance obligation.
Revenue from the Company’s SaaS subscription services represent a single promise to provide continuous access to its software solutions and their processing capabilities in the form of a service through one of the Company’s or hosted data centers. As each day of providing access to the software is substantially the same, and the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits as access is provided, the Company has determined that its subscription services arrangements include a single performance obligation comprised of a series of distinct services. The Company’s SaaS subscriptions also include an unspecified volume of call center support and any remote system diagnostic and software upgrades as needed. These services are combined with the recurring monthly subscription service since they are highly interrelated and interdependent. Revenue from the Company’s subscription services is recognized over time on a ratable basis over the contract term beginning on the date that the service is made available to the customer.
Where such arrangements cannot be accounted for as a single distinct performance obligation, judgment is required to determine the stand-alone selling price (“SSP”) for each distinct performance obligation. When available, the Company uses observable inputs to determine SSP. In instances where SSP is not directly observable, such as when the Company does not sell the product or service separately, it determines the SSP based on a cost-plus model, as market and other observable inputs are seldom present based on the proprietary nature of the Company’s products.
Contract Liabilities
Timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to customers. If customers are invoiced for subscription services in advance of the service period, deferred revenue liabilities, or contract liabilities, are recorded. Deferred revenue liabilities, or contract liabilities, are also recorded when the Company collects payments in advance of performing the services.
Contract Assets
The Company capitalizes sales commissions earned by its sales force when they are considered to be incremental and recoverable costs of obtaining a contract with a customer. These costs are deferred and then amortized over a period of benefit. There were no significant amounts of assets recorded related to contract costs as of December 31, 2018.
Applying the practical expedient in paragraph 40-25-4 of ASC 340, the Company recognizes the incremental costs of obtaining contracts as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the assets that the Company otherwise would have recognized is one year or less. These costs are included in selling, general and administrative expenses.

42



Transition Disclosures
Adoption of the new standards related to revenue recognition did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Receivable
We provide an allowance for our accounts receivable for estimated losses that may result from our customers’ inability to pay. We determine the amount of the allowance by analyzing known uncollectible accounts, aged receivables, economic conditions, historical losses, and changes in customer payment cycles and our customers’ credit-worthiness. Amounts later determined and specifically identified to be uncollectible are charged or written off against this allowance. To minimize the likelihood of uncollectibility, we review our customers’ credit-worthiness periodically based on credit scores generated by independent credit reporting services, our experience with our customers and the economic condition of our customers’ industries. Material differences may result in the amount and timing of expense for any period if we were to make different judgments or utilize different estimates. If the financial condition of our customers deteriorates resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required.
Provision for Excess and Obsolete Inventory
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. We review the components of our inventory and our inventory purchase commitments on a regular basis for excess and obsolete inventory based on estimated future usage and sales. Write-downs in inventory value or losses on inventory purchase commitments depend on various items, including factors related to customer demand, economic and competitive conditions, technological advances or new product introductions by us or our customers that vary from our current expectations. Whenever inventory is written down, a new cost basis is established and the inventory is not subsequently written up if market conditions improve.
We believe that, when made, the estimates we use in calculating the inventory provision are reasonable and properly reflect the risk of excess and obsolete inventory. If customer demand for our inventory is substantially less than our estimates, inventory write-downs may be required, which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements.
Acquisitions
When acquiring companies, we recognize separately from goodwill the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed at their acquisition date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred and the net of the acquisition date fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. While we use our best estimates and assumptions as a part of the purchase price allocation process to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date, our estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Accounting for business combinations requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially at the acquisition date with respect to intangible assets, support liabilities assumed and pre-acquisition contingencies. Although we believe the assumptions and estimates we have made in the past have been reasonable and appropriate, they are based in part on historical experience, market data and information obtained from the management of the acquired companies and are inherently uncertain.
Examples of critical estimates in valuing certain of the intangible assets the Company has acquired include but are not limited to: (i) future expected cash flows from customer relationships; (ii) estimates to develop or use technology; and (iii) discount rates.
If management determines that a pre-acquisition contingency is probable in nature and estimable as of the acquisition date, we record our best estimate for such a contingency as a part of the preliminary fair value allocation. We continue to gather information for and evaluate pre-acquisition contingencies throughout the measurement period and if we make changes to the amounts recorded or if we identify additional pre-acquisition contingencies during the measurement period, such amounts will be included in the fair value allocation during the measurement period and, subsequently, in our results of operations.
We may be required to pay future consideration to the former shareholders of acquired companies, depending on the terms of the applicable purchase agreements, which may be contingent upon the achievement of certain financial and operating targets, as well as the retention of key employees. If the future consideration is considered to be compensation, amounts will be expensed when incurred.

43



Purchased Intangible Assets
In determining the fair value allocation for our acquisitions, we considered, among other factors, our intended uses of the acquired assets and the historical and estimated future demand for the acquired company’s products and services. The estimated fair value of intangible assets is determined using the income approach. The income approach relies on an estimation of the present value of the future monetary benefits expected to flow to the owner of an asset during its remaining economic life. This approach requires a projection of the cash flow that the asset is expected to generate in the future. The projected cash flow is discounted to its present value using a rate of return, or discount rate that accounts for the time value of money and the degree of risks inherent in the asset. The expected future cash flow that is projected should include all of the economic benefits attributable to the asset, including the tax savings associated with the amortization of the intangible asset value over the tax life of the asset. The income approach may take the form of a “relief from royalty” methodology, a cost savings methodology, a “with and without” methodology or excess earnings methodology, depending on the specific asset under consideration.
Long-Lived Assets
We periodically evaluate the carrying value of the unamortized balances of our long-lived assets, including property, plant and equipment, rental assets and intangible assets, which requires us to make assumptions and judgments regarding the carrying value of these assets. We consider assets to be impaired if the carrying value may not be recoverable based upon our assessment of the following events or changes in circumstances: the asset’s ability to continue to generate income from operations and positive cash flow in future periods; loss of legal ownership or title to the asset; significant changes in our strategic business objectives and utilization of the asset; or significant negative industry or economic trends.
Our assessment includes comparing the carrying amounts of long-lived assets to their associated undiscounted expected future cash flows, which are determined using an expected cash flow model. This model requires estimates of our future revenues, profits, capital expenditures, working capital and other relevant factors. We estimate these amounts by evaluating our historical trends, current budgets, operating plans and other industry data. If the assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment charge recognized is the amount by which the asset’s carrying value exceeds its estimated fair value.
The timing and frequency of our impairment test is based on an ongoing assessment of triggering events that could reduce the fair value of our long-lived assets below their carrying value. We monitor our long-lived asset balances and conduct formal tests on at least an annual basis or earlier when impairment indicators are present. We believe that the assumptions and estimates we used to value long-lived assets were appropriate based on the information available to management. The majority of our long-lived assets are being amortized or depreciated over approximately two to ten years. As most of these assets are associated with technology or trade conditions that may change rapidly, such changes could have an immediate impact on our impairment analysis.
Valuation of Goodwill
Our goodwill resulted from our acquisitions of RER and DigiCore Holdings Limited during 2015. In accordance with the ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, we review goodwill for impairment at least annually, typically at the beginning of the fourth quarter of each year, and more frequently if events or changes in circumstances occur that indicate a potential reduction in the fair value of the reporting unit to which the goodwill has been assigned below its carrying value.
Convertible Debt
We account for convertible debt instruments that are settleable in cash upon conversion (including partial cash settlement) by separating the liability and equity components of the instruments in a manner that reflects our nonconvertible debt borrowing rate. We determine the carrying amount of the liability component by measuring the fair value of similar debt instruments that do not have the conversion feature. If a similar debt instrument does not exist, we estimate the fair value by using assumptions that market participants would use in pricing a debt instrument, including market interest rates, credit standing, yield curves and volatilities. Determining the fair value of the debt component requires the use of accounting estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions are judgmental in nature and could have a significant impact on the determination of the debt component and the associated non-cash interest expense.
Upon issuance, we assign a value to the debt component equal to the estimated fair value of similar debt instruments without the conversion feature, which could result in our recording the debt instrument at a discount. If the debt instrument is recorded at a discount, we amortize the debt discount over the life of the debt instrument as additional non-cash interest expense utilizing the effective interest method.
Provision for Warranty Costs
We accrue warranty costs based on estimates of future warranty related replacement, repairs or rework of products. Our warranty policy generally provides between one and three years of coverage for products following the date of purchase. Our

44



policy is to accrue the estimated cost of warranty coverage as a component of cost of revenue in the consolidated statements of operations at the time revenue is recognized. In estimating our future warranty obligations we consider various relevant factors, including the historical frequency and volume of claims, and the cost to replace or repair products under warranty. The warranty provision for our products is determined by using a financial model to estimate future warranty costs. Our financial model takes into consideration actual product failure rates, estimated replacement over the contractual warranty period, repair or rework expenses and potential risks associated with our different products. The risk levels, warranty cost information, and failure rates used within this model are reviewed throughout the year and updated, if and when, these inputs change.
We actively engage in product improvement programs and processes to limit our warranty costs, but our warranty obligation is affected by the complexity of our product, product failure rates and costs incurred to correct those product failures. The industry in which we operate is subject to rapid technological change, and as a result, we periodically introduce newer, more complex products. Depending on the quality of our product design and manufacturing, actual product failure rates or actual warranty costs could be materially greater than our estimates, which could harm our financial condition and results of operations.
Litigation
We are, from time to time, party to various legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business. We will record a loss when we determine information available prior to the issuance of the financial statements indicates the loss is both probable and estimable. Where a liability is probable and there is a range of estimated loss with no best estimate in the range, we record the minimum estimated liability related to the claim. As additional information becomes available, we assess the potential liability related to our pending litigation and revise our estimates, if necessary. Our policy is to expense litigation costs as incurred.
Share-based Compensation
We have stock incentive plans under which stock options and restricted stock units have been granted to employees, non-employee consultants and non-employee members of our Board of Directors. We also have an employee stock purchase plan for all eligible employees. Share-based payments, including grants of stock options, restricted stock units and stock purchase rights, are recognized in the financial statements based upon their respective grant date fair values.
We estimate the fair value of stock option awards and stock purchase rights on the date of grant using an option-pricing model. The value of the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is principally recognized as expense ratably over the requisite service periods. We have estimated the fair value of stock options and stock purchase rights as of the date of grant or assumption using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which was developed for use in estimating the value of traded options that have no vesting restrictions and that are freely transferable. The Black-Scholes model considers, among other factors, the expected life of the award and the expected volatility of our stock price. We evaluate the assumptions used to value stock options and stock purchase rights on a quarterly basis. Although the Black-Scholes model is an acceptable model, the fair values generated by the model may not be indicative of the actual fair values of our equity awards, as it does not consider other factors important to those awards to recipients, such as continued service, periodic vesting requirements and limited transferability.
Compensation cost associated with grants of restricted stock units are measured at fair value, which has historically been the closing price of our common stock on the date of the grant.
Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Not applicable.
Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Our consolidated financial statements and the Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firms appear in Part IV of this report.
Item 9.    Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
None.

45



Item 9A.    Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act) that are designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in our reports to the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and our principal financial and accounting officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
As required by SEC rules, we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and our principal financial and accounting officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2018, the end of the period covered by this report. Based on the foregoing, our principal executive officer and principal financial and accounting officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of December 31, 2018.
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f). Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that internal controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or because the degree of compliance with policies and procedures may deteriorate.
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework set forth in by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) (2013 framework) in Internal Control—Integrated Framework. Based on our evaluation under the framework in Internal Control—Integrated Framework, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2018.
Marcum LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm that audited the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, has also audited our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, as stated in their report which is included herein.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
An evaluation was also performed under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and our principal financial and accounting officer, of any change in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during our last fiscal quarter and that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting. The evaluation did not identify any change in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during our latest fiscal quarter and that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Item 9B.    Other Information
None.


 

46



REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING


To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of
Inseego Corp.

Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited Inseego Corp.’s (the “Company”) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018 and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders’ deficit, and cash flows for the year then ended of the Company and our report dated March 12, 2019 expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.

Basis for Opinion

The Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of the inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ Marcum LLP

Marcum LLP

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
March 12, 2019


47



PART III
Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14.
The information required by Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 is incorporated by reference from the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which the Company intends to file with the SEC within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year end to which this report relates.
PART IV
Item 15.    Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
(a)(1)
The Company’s consolidated financial statements and report of the Marcum LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, are included in Section IV of this report beginning on page F-1.
(a)(2)
Schedules have been omitted because they are not applicable or are not required or the information required to be set forth therein is included in the consolidated financial statements or related notes thereto.
(b)
Exhibits
The following Exhibits are filed as part of, or incorporated by reference into this report:
Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
 
 
3.1
 
 
 
 
3.2
 
 
 
 
3.3
 
 
 
 
4.1
 
 
 
 
4.2
 
 
 
 
4.3
 
 
 
 
4.4
 
 
 
 
4.5
 
 
 
 
4.6
 
 
 
 
4.7
 
 
 
 
4.8
 
 
 
 
4.9
 
 
 
 
4.10
 

48



Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
 
 
4.11
 
 
 
 
4.12
 
 
 
 
4.13
 
 
 
 
4.14
 
 
 
 
4.15
 
 
 
 
4.16
 
 
 
 
10.1*
 
 
 
 
10.2*
 
 
 
 
10.3*
 
 
 
 
10.4*
 
 
 
 
10.5*
 
 
 
 
10.6*
 
 
 
 
10.7*
 
 
 
 
10.8*
 
 
 
 
10.9*
 
 
 
 
10.10*
 
 
 
 
10.11*
 
 
 
 
10.12*
 

49



Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
 
 
10.13*
 
 
 
 
10.14*
 
 
 
 
10.15*
 
 
 
 
10.16*
 
 
 
 
10.17*
 
 
 
 
10.18*
 
 
 
 
10.19*
 
 
 
 
10.20*
 
 
 
 
10.21
 
 
 
 
10.22
 
 
 
 
10.23
 
 
 
 
10.24
 
 
 
 
10.25
 
 
 
 
10.26*
 
 
 
 
10.27*
 
 
 
 
10.28*
 
 
 
 
10.29*
 
 
 
 
10.30
 
 
 
 
10.31
 

50



Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
 
 
21**
 
 
 
 
23.1**
 
 
 
 
23.2**
 
 
 
 
24**
 
 
 
 
31.1**
  
 
 
 
31.2**
  
 
 
 
32.1**
  
 
 
 
32.2**
  
 
 
 
101**
  
The following financial statements and footnotes from the Inseego Corp. Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 formatted in eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL): (i) Consolidated Balance Sheets; (ii) Consolidated Statements of Operations; (iii) Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss; (iv) Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit); (v) Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows; and (vi) the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
 
 
*
 
Management contract, compensatory plan or arrangement
 
 
 
**
 
Filed herewith
 
 
 
Item 16.    Form 10-K Summary
None.

51



SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
Date: March 12, 2019
 
INSEEGO CORP.
 
 
 
 
 
By
 
/s/ Dan Mondor
 
 
 
 
Dan Mondor
 
 
 
 
Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
POWER OF ATTORNEY
Know all men by these presents, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Dan Mondor and Stephen Smith, or either of them, as his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or their substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this Annual Report on Form 10-K has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
 
Signature
  
Title
 
Date
/s/ Dan Mondor
  
Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer and Director)
 
March 12, 2019
Dan Mondor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Stephen Smith
  
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
 
March 12, 2019
Stephen Smith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Robert Pons
  
Director
 
March 12, 2019
Robert Pons
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Jeffrey Tuder
  
Director
 
March 12, 2019
Jeffrey Tuder
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ James B. Avery
  
Director
 
March 12, 2019
James B. Avery
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Brian Miller
  
Director
 
March 12, 2019
Brian Miller
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

52



INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
 
 

F-1



REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of Inseego Corp.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of Inseego Corp. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2018, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders’ deficit and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2018, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2018, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on the criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in 2013 and our report dated March 12, 2019, expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audit included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audit also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ Marcum LLP

Marcum LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2018.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
March 12, 2019

F-2



Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm


To the Board of Directors and
Stockholders of Inseego Corp.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of Inseego Corp. (“Company”) as of December 31, 2017 and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, stockholders’ deficit, and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2017, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Inseego Corp. as of December 31, 2017, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2017, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audit included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audit also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ MAYER HOFFMAN MCCANN P.C.
San Diego, California
March 15, 2018

We served as the Company’s auditor from 2016 to 2018.




F-3



INSEEGO CORP.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
 
December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
31,015

 
$
21,198

Restricted cash
61

 
61

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $1,841 and $2,683, respectively
20,633

 
15,674

Inventories, net
26,431

 
20,403

Prepaid expenses and other
6,212

 
9,101

Total current assets
84,352

 
66,437

Property, plant and equipment, net
6,698

 
6,991

Rental assets, net
5,769

 
7,563

Intangible assets, net
31,985

 
38,671

Goodwill
32,942

 
37,681

Other assets
510

 
864

Total assets
$
162,256

 
$
158,207

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
39,245

 
$
29,332

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
13,024

 
27,558

DigiCore bank facilities
1,412

 
3,075

Total current liabilities
53,681

 
59,965

Long-term liabilities:
 
 
 
Convertible senior notes, net
93,054

 
84,773

Term loan, net
45,046

 
44,055

Deferred tax liabilities, net
4,457

 
5,261

Other long-term liabilities
2,543

 
9,768

Total liabilities
198,781

 
203,822

Commitments and Contingencies

 

Stockholders’ deficit:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, par value $0.001; 2,000,000 shares authorized and none outstanding

 

Common stock, par value $0.001; 150,000,000 shares authorized, 73,979,882 and 58,644,559 shares issued and outstanding, respectively
74

 
59

Additional paid-in capital
546,230

 
519,531

Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income
(4,877
)
 
4,604

Accumulated deficit
(577,817
)
 
(569,759
)
Total stockholders’ deficit attributable to Inseego Corp.
(36,390
)
 
(45,565
)
Noncontrolling interests
(135
)
 
(50
)
Total stockholders’ deficit
(36,525
)
 
(45,615
)
Total liabilities and stockholders’ deficit
$
162,256

 
$
158,207


See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

F-4



INSEEGO CORP.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
Net revenues:
 
 
 
IoT & Mobile Solutions
$
135,349

 
$
152,851

Enterprise SaaS Solutions
67,114

 
66,446

Total net revenues
202,463

 
219,297

Cost of net revenues:
 
 
 
IoT & Mobile Solutions
105,344

 
127,293

Enterprise SaaS Solutions
26,167

 
24,938

Impairment of abandoned product line, net of recoveries
355

 
(269
)
Total cost of net revenues
131,866

 
151,962

Gross profit
70,597

 
67,335

Operating costs and expenses:
 
 
 
Research and development
20,593

 
21,362

Sales and marketing
23,027

 
25,019

General and administrative
25,325

 
34,415

Amortization of purchased intangible assets
3,624

 
3,601

Extinguishment of acquisition-related liabilities
(17,174
)
 

Restructuring charges, net of recoveries
1,191

 
5,152

Total operating costs and expenses
56,586

 
89,549

Operating income (loss)
14,011

 
(22,214
)
Other expense:
 
 
 
Interest expense, net
(20,444
)
 
(19,332
)
Other expense, net
(895
)
 
(4,080
)
Loss before income taxes
(7,328
)
 
(45,626
)
Income tax provision
815

 
214

Net loss
(8,143
)
 
(45,840
)
Less: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
85

 
105

Net loss attributable to Inseego Corp.
$
(8,058
)
 
$
(45,735
)
Per share data:
 
 
 
Net loss per share:
 
 
 
Basic and diluted
$
(0.12
)
 
$
(0.78
)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding:
 
 
 
Basic and diluted
66,104,376

 
58,718,483



See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

F-5



INSEEGO CORP.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(in thousands)

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
Net loss
$
(8,143
)
 
$
(45,840
)
Foreign currency translation adjustment
(9,481
)
 
6,013

Total comprehensive loss
$
(17,624
)
 
$
(39,827
)





See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.


F-6





INSEEGO CORP.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT
(in thousands)
 
 
Common Stock
 
Additional
Paid-in Capital
 
Accumulated Deficit
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
 
Noncontrolling Interests
 
Total
Stockholders’ Deficit
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
 
 
 
 
Balance, December 31, 2016
54,372

 
54

 
507,616

 
(524,024
)
 
(1,409
)
 
36

 
(17,727
)
Net loss

 

 

 
(45,735
)
 

 
(105
)
 
(45,840
)
Foreign currency translation adjustment

 

 

 

 
6,013

 

 
6,013

Net noncontrolling interest acquired

 

 

 

 

 
19

 
19

Exercise of stock options, vesting of restricted stock units and stock issued under employee stock purchase plan
1,231

 
2

 
388

 

 

 

 
390

Taxes withheld on net settled vesting of restricted stock units

 

 
(896
)
 

 

 

 
(896
)
Issuance of common shares (Notes 5 and 11)
3,042

 
3

 
5,075

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5,078

Share-based compensation

 

 
3,748

 

 

 

 
3,748

Additional discount on exchange of convertible senior notes

 

 
3,600

 

 

 

 
3,600

Balance, December 31, 2017
58,645

 
59

 
519,531

 
(569,759
)
 
4,604

 
(50
)
 
(45,615
)
Net loss

 

 

 
(8,058
)
 

 
(85
)
 
(8,143
)
Foreign currency translation adjustment

 

 

 

 
(9,481
)
 

 
(9,481
)
Exercise of stock options, vesting of restricted stock units and stock issued under employee stock purchase plan
2,645

 
3

 
2,405

 

 

 

 
2,408

Taxes withheld on net settled vesting of restricted stock units

 

 
(656
)
 

 

 

 
(656
)
Issuance of common shares (Notes 10 and 11)
12,690

 
12

 
20,074

 

 

 

 
20,086

Share-based compensation

 

 
4,876

 

 

 

 
4,876

Balance, December 31, 2018
73,980

 
$
74

 
$
546,230

 
$
(577,817
)
 
$
(4,877
)
 
$
(135
)
 
$
(36,525
)


See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.


F-7





INSEEGO CORP.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
Net loss
$
(8,143
)
 
$
(45,840
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
13,733

 
14,274

Provision for bad debts, net of recoveries
555

 
1,618

Provision for excess and obsolete inventory, net of recoveries
1,040

 
1,674

Share-based compensation expense
4,876

 
3,748

Amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs
9,772

 
10,283

Loss on extinguishment of debt, net

 
2,035

Deferred income taxes
14

 
319

Non-cash gain on extinguishment of acquisition-related liabilities
(17,174
)
 

Unrealized foreign currency transaction loss (gain), net
402

 
(316
)
Other
1,620

 
1,684

Changes in assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
(6,883
)
 
5,638

Inventories
(11,437
)
 
3,020

Prepaid expenses and other assets
3,251

 
(3,239
)
Accounts payable
9,646

 
(730
)
Accrued expenses, income taxes, and other
(3,037
)
 
(8,744
)
Net cash used in operating activities
(1,765
)
 
(14,576
)
Cash flows from investing activities:
 
 
 
Purchases of property, plant and equipment
(1,338
)
 
(1,789
)
Proceeds from the sale of property, plant and equipment
144

 
253

Purchases of intangible assets and additions to capitalized software development costs
(3,040
)
 
(2,839
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(4,234
)
 
(4,375
)
Cash flows from financing activities:
 
 
 
Gross proceeds received from private placement
19,661

 

Payment of issuance costs related to private placement
(500
)
 

Proceeds from term loans

 
64,917

Payment of issuance costs related to term loans

 
(905
)
Principal payments on term loans
(500
)
 
(20,000
)
Repurchase of convertible senior notes

 
(11,900
)
Net repayment of DigiCore bank and overdraft facilities
(1,453
)
 
(76
)
Principal payments under capital lease obligations
(977
)
 
(876
)
Principal payments on mortgage bond
(316
)
 
(288
)
Proceeds from stock option exercises and employee stock purchase plan, net of taxes paid on vested restricted stock units
1,752

 
(506
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
17,667

 
30,366

Effect of exchange rates on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
(1,851
)
 
(50
)
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
9,817

 
11,365

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period
21,259

 
9,894

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period
$
31,076

 
$
21,259

Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
 
 
 
Cash paid during the year for:
 
 
 
Interest
$
10,642

 
$
9,074

Income taxes
$
672

 
$
440

Supplemental disclosures of non-cash activities:
 
 
 
Transfer of inventories to rental assets
$
3,973

 
$
5,943

Purchases of property, plant and equipment under capital lease
$
1,563

 
$
290

Capital expenditures financed through accounts payable
$
1,680

 
$

Issuance of common stock under settlement agreement
$
925

 
$

Issuance of common stock under amended earn-out agreement
$

 
$
2,638

Additional debt discount on exchange of convertible senior notes
$

 
$
3,600

Term loan debt discount issued in common stock
$

 
$
2,340

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

F-8




INSEEGO CORP.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 
1. Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
Inseego Corp. (the “Company” or “Inseego”) is a leader in the design and development of mobile (advanced 4G and 5G New Radio (“5G NR”)), Internet of Things (“IoT”) and cloud solutions for large enterprise verticals, service providers and small and medium-sized businesses around the globe. Inseego’s product portfolio consists of fixed and mobile device-to-cloud solutions that produce compelling, intelligent, reliable and secure end-to-end IoT services with deep business intelligence. Inseego’s products and solutions power mission critical applications with a “zero unscheduled downtime” mandate, such as 5G fixed wireless access gateway solutions, 4G and 5G mobile broadband, industrial IoT, SD WAN failover management, asset tracking and fleet management services. Inseego’s solutions are powered by its key innovations in mobile technologies, including a suite of products employing the 5G New Radio (“5G NR”) standards, and purpose-built SaaS cloud platforms.
Inseego is a Delaware corporation formed in 2016 and is the successor to Novatel Wireless, Inc., a Delaware corporation formed in 1996 (“Novatel Wireless”), as a result of an internal reorganization that was completed in November 2016. The Company’s principal executive office is located at 12600 Deerfield Parkway, Suite 100, Alpharetta, GA 30004, its corporate offices are located at 9605 Scranton Road, Suite 300, San Diego CA 92121 and its sales and engineering offices are located throughout the world. Inseego’s common stock trades on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the trading symbol “INSG”.
Basis of Presentation
The Company had a net loss attributable to Inseego Corp. of $8.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2018. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had available cash and cash equivalents totaling $31.0 million and working capital of $30.7 million. The Company has a history of operating and net losses and overall usage of cash from operating and investing activities.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company continued certain restructuring initiatives aimed at significantly reducing the Company’s cost of revenues and operating expenses in an effort to increase operating cash flows to eventually be sufficient to offset debt service costs and cash flows from investing activities. The Company’s management believes that its cash and cash equivalents, together with anticipated cash flows from operations, will be sufficient to meet its working capital needs for the next twelve months following the filing date of this report. The Company’s ability to transition to more profitable operations is dependent upon achieving a level of revenue adequate to support its evolving cost structure. If events or circumstances occur such that the Company does not meet its operating plan as expected, or if the Company becomes obligated to pay unforeseen expenditures as a result of ongoing litigation, the Company may be required to reduce planned research and development activities, incur additional restructuring charges or reduce other operating expenses which could have an adverse impact on its ability to achieve its intended business objectives.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and disclosure of contingent liabilities. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates. Significant estimates include allowance for doubtful accounts receivable, provision for excess and obsolete inventory, valuation of intangible and long-lived assets, valuation of goodwill, valuation of debt obligations, royalty costs, tariffs, accruals relating to litigation and restructuring, provision for warranty costs, income taxes, share-based compensation expense and the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
Segment Information
The Company does not provide separate segment reporting for its various lines of business. The Chief Executive Officer, who is also the Chief Operating Decision Maker, evaluates the business as a single entity, reviews financial information, and makes business decisions based on the overall results of the business. As such, the Company’s operations constitute a single operating segment and one reportable segment.

F-9




INSEEGO CORP.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less. Cash and cash equivalents are recorded at market value, which approximates cost. Gains and losses associated with the Company’s foreign currency denominated demand deposits are recorded as a component of other income (expense), net, in the consolidated statements of operations.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Receivable
The Company provides an allowance for its accounts receivable for estimated losses that may result from its customers’ inability to pay. The Company determines the amount of the allowance by analyzing known uncollectible accounts, aged receivables, economic conditions, historical losses, and changes in customer payment cycles and its customers’ credit-worthiness. Amounts later determined and specifically identified to be uncollectible are charged or written off against this allowance. To minimize the likelihood of uncollectibility, the Company reviews its customers’ credit-worthiness periodically based on credit scores generated by independent credit reporting services, its experience with its customers and the economic condition of its customers’ industries. Material differences may result in the amount and timing of expense for any period if the Company were to make different judgments or utilize different estimates.
Inventories and Provision for Excess and Obsolete Inventory
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. Shipping and handling costs are classified as a component of cost of net revenues in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company reviews the components of its inventory and its inventory purchase commitments on a regular basis for excess and obsolete inventory based on estimated future usage and sales. Write-downs in inventory value or losses on inventory purchase commitments depend on various items, including factors related to customer demand, economic and competitive conditions, technological advances or new product introductions by the Company or its customers that vary from its current expectations. Whenever inventory is written down, a new cost basis is established and the inventory is not subsequently written up if market conditions improve.
The Company believes that, when made, the estimates used in calculating the inventory provision are reasonable and properly reflect the risk of excess and obsolete inventory. If customer demand for the Company’s inventory is substantially less than its estimates, inventory write-downs may be required, which could have a material adverse effect on its consolidated financial statements.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are initially stated at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method. Test equipment, computer equipment, purchased software, furniture and fixtures, product tooling and vehicles are depreciated over lives ranging from thirteen months to six years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of the related remaining lease period or useful life. Buildings are depreciated over